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32 terms

Science Ch 8 Sect 1

STUDY
PLAY
Focus
The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
Epicenter
The point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquakes focus
Seismic Waves
A vibrationt that travels through earth carrying the energy released duringa n earthquake
P waves
A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground
S waves
A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side
Surface Waves
A type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach the Earth's surface
seismograph
a device that records ground movements caused by earthquakes as they move though earth
Magnitude
The measurement of an Earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults
Mercalli Scale
A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause
Richter Scale
A scale that rates earthquakes measured by a mechanical seismograph
Moment Magnitude Scale
A scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake
Liquefaction
The process by which an earthquake's violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud
Aftershock
An earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area
Tsunamis
A giant wave caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor
Base- Isolated Building
A building mounted on bearings designed to absorb the energy of an earthquake
Earthquake
The shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath the earth's surface
Stress
A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
Shearing
Stress that pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions
Tension
Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
Compression
Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
Deformation
A change in the volume or shape of the earth's crust
Fault
A break or crack in the earth's lithosphere along which rocks move
Strike- Slip Fault
A type of fault where rocks on either side move past eachother sideways with little up or down motion
Normal Fault
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust
Hanging Wall
The block of rock that forms the upper half of the fault
Footwall
The block of rock that forms the lower half of the fault
Reverse Fault
A type of fault where the haning wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust
Fault- Block Mountain
A mountain that forms where a normal fault uplifts a block of rock
Folds
A bend in rock that forms where part of the earth's crust is comporessed
Anticline
An upward fold in rock formed by compression of earth's crust
Syncline
A downward fold in rock formed by compression in earth's crust
Plateau
A landform that has a more or less level surface and is elevated high above sea level