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Child Development Final Exam
Terms in this set (74)
Effects of Stimulating Home Environment on Achievement Motivation
Fosters intrinsic motivation to satisfy personal needs for competence/mastery.
Effects of Parents on Achievement Motivation
Not critical, autonomy-supportive, guidance/scaffolding [Work through the problem together/help/guide.
Effect of Value on Achievement Motivation
More likely to pursue & strive hard to achieve goals we care about.
Effect of Expectancies of Success on Achievement Motivation
More motivated to achieve when we believe we're capable of success.
Internal vs. External Attributions
Individual qualities (you're responsible for yourself) v. environmental factors (luck/fate/others.
Stable vs. Unstable Attributions
Factors that don't change v. factors that vary across situations.
What is Adaptive - Achievement Motivation?
Attributing successes to internal & stable causes (increase self-esteem and expectancies of success) + attributing failure to internal & unstable causes.
Achievement Motivation Trends
Infancy = roots as infants have inherent desire to master their environment aka effectance motivation or mastery motivation. By age 2 = capable of determining their successes/failures and expect approval/disapproval. By age 3 = standards of perfection and pride/shame. By age 7 = clear differences in achievement style.
a. successes - Attribute success to internal and stable causes! Hey, I aced that test because I am smart.
b. failures -Attribute failures to internal & unstable causes! Hey, I did not do so well on that test because I did not study that much.
c. implications -High expectancies of success, persist through failure, and thrive despite challenge.
Learned Helplessness Orientation
a. successes - Attribute success to internal & unstable causes. Hey, I aced that test because it was easy.
b. failures - Attribute failures to internal & stable causes. Hey, I failed that test because I am not good at math.
c. implications -Low expectancies of success, avoid challenge and give up like that.
Incremental View of Achievement Motivation
Less than 7 = They don't understand ability as a stable capacity, so they believe ability is a changeable quality.
Entity View of Intelligence
Older than 7 = They believe ability is a stable quality that can't be altered.
a. performance goals - So, they aren't striving to learn, but to prove their ability and not come in any less to cause disappointment and judgment.
Factors Contributing to Shift in Achievement Motivation
a. cognitive development - Now able to see causes of success & failure.
b. ability for social comparison -Compare to others!
c. feedback in school - Grades!
d. the way parents/adults praise - Person praise = praise focuses on ability as a trait (smart, beautiful) Leads to performance goal, so we can show we are competent. Process-oriented praise = praises of good approaches strategies (good effort) Leads to learning goals (master that task!).
Combatting Learned Helplessness
a. Emphasize learning goals
1. prepare them for mistakes - Normalize failure, so important. It is okay to fail! Still learning.
B. Give Process Praise
C. Attribution re-training - Failures = encourage children to overcome incompetence through effort! Successes = encourage child as mastering challenging work and that they are improving.
Adolescents' psychosocial stage is to figure out their identity and solve role confusion.
Why a Crisis in Identity?
a. Bodily Changes - Puberty!
b. Cognitive Development -Can think about hypothetical future selves & possibilities.
c. Social Demands & Flexibility - Infinite options, but extreme time pressure to decide.
James Marcia's Theory (crisis followed by commitment)
What is meant by a "crisis?" - Raising questions, exploring alternatives and trying to choose.
What is meant by "commitment?" - Resolving questions, and making firm commitment to an alternative.
No crisis, no commitment because no serious thought
Commitment w/o crisis, you've never questioned or explored alternatives, so I've always wanted to be a doctor!
Crisis is happening now! Exploring alternatives & trying to balance everyone's needs and wants.
Crisis experienced, resolved & commitment made! Worked through all beliefs and alternatives. You're committed!
Trends of Identity Achievement
a. individuals under 18 = diffusion
b. late teens/early 20's = move from diffusion/foreclosure to moratorium.
c. midtwenties = about half have identity achievement.
d. males vs. females - longer for males.
Factors Contributing to Identity Development - Cognitive Development
Formal Operators - Think in complex and abstract ways = more likely to raises and fix identity issues.
Factors Contributing to Identity Development - Relationship w/ parents
a. Neglectful/Rejecting - Leads to diffusion.
b. Overprotective & Controlling - Often foreclosure, never question, just settle because they have to.
Factors Contributing to Identity Development - Experience outside home
College - Promotes moratorium!
Factors Contributing to Identity Development - Cultural Context
Traditional cultures - Adopt adult roles expected, so foreclosure because they need to take over the family business or my dad was a lawyer, so I am.
What is Temperament?
Genetically based tendencies to respond in predictable ways to events.
What is Temperament the Building Blocks of?
... of personality because it influences kinds of interactions individual has w/ environment.
Agreement vs. Disagreement on Temperament
Agree = innate characteristics, disagree = what these are.
E-A-S View of Temperament
a. Emotionality dimension - Intensity & frequency of emotional reactions.
b. Activity dimension - General level of energy output.
c. Sociability dimension -Inclination to affiliate and interaction w/ others.
d. Evidence for inheritance -Largely inherited, because of correlations for twin studies.
Rothbart's N-ES-EC Viewpoint
Most contemporary viewpoint to date; empirically derived; cross-cultural evidence
Rothbart's N-ES-EC Viewpoint - Negative Affectivity
Emotional mood and intensity. Components include: Frustration: negative affect related to goal blocking or interruption of ongoing tasks, Fear: negative affect related to anticipated distress, Sadness: lowered mood related to personal or others' sadness, Soothability: rate of recovery from peak distress.
Rothbart's N-ES-EC Viewpoint - Extraversion-Surgency
Captures tendency to approach or withdraw from new social situations. Components include: Sociability: seeking and taking pleasure in interaction with others, Activity level/energy: level of gross motor activity, Impulsivity: Speed of response initiation, High intensity pleasure: enjoyment related to high stimulus frequency, Positive anticipation: excitement about expected activities.
Rothbart's N-ES-EC Viewpoint - Effortful control
Refers to behavioral or physiological processes involving self-regulation that can modulate activity. Components include: Inhibitory control: capacity to stop, moderate or refrain from a behavior, Attentional control: ability to sustain attention & resist distraction, Low intensity pleasure: enjoyment related to low stimulus intensity/rate/complexity, etc.
Behavioral Inhibition View
Refers to a tendency to by shy, restrained & distressed to unfamiliar people + situations. High in negative emotionality and low in extraversion.
- 15 - 20%
What is Attachment?
Cognitive understanding of relationships.
"Clear-cut Attachment Phase"
7 mos. - 3 yrs.: specific attachment to an attachment figure, then multiple to follow.
Fears that Emerge with Attachment Formation
Separation anxiety: fretful when parting, peak at 14 - 18m. Stranger anxiety: wary of unfamiliar person, common at 8 - 10 m, declines in intensity over 2nd year.
How to Assess Attachment
1. Strange Situation (i.e., separations)
a. key indicator: reactions to mother's return.
Calm down readily, happy, resume play. Due to consistent sensitivity and responsiveness. Belief/confidence in availability, security is readily achieved, use of figure as "secure base."
a. resistant - Take long time to soothe, irritated too. Due to inconsistency. b. avoidant - Don't seem to care. Due to lack of availability or rejection. c. disorganized -Freezing, dazed. Due to frightening behavior.
Psychoanalytic & Learning Views on Why We Attach
Child's bond to mother is based on fact she provides food & basic care...no.
Ethological View on Why We Attach
Biologically predisposed to form an attachment because it is adaptive! Ultimate function = protection + increases survival chances. A basic need!
Evidence for Ethological View of Attachment
Consequences of non-attachment! Sensitive period exists (3 years). Ability for intimate relationships will be permanently impaired. Still some flexibility though! Variation allows individual to adapt to their environment and variation among caregiving = variation in style/quality.
Two Dimensions of Parenting - Warmth
Extent parent is supportive, willing to provide affection and praise when child's meets expectations, sensitive to child's needs!
Two Dimensions of Parenting - Control
How much control over decisions & child's behavior lies w/ parent and not child. They set rules, expect them to be followed and monitor child closely to ensure following rules.
High control/ high warmth
High control/low warmth
Low control/high warmth
Low control/low warmth
Outcomes of Authoritative Parenting
Secure attachments, cheerful, prosocial tendencies, high peer acceptance, high academic competence, self-reliant and confident.
Outcomes of Permissive Parenting
Poor self-control, rebellious, impulsive, low social competencies, aimless, low cognitive competencies.
Outcomes of Authoritarian Parenting
Moody, easily annoyed, relatively aimless, less self-reliant, less confident, avg. academic performance & social skills.
Outcomes of Neglectful Parenting
High in aggression and temper tantrums, poor academic performance & poor peer acceptance. Later in life = selfish, hostile, rebellious, etc. Breed resentment & motivate to strike back against authority figures.
Short Term Consequences of Peer Rejection
1. feel "pain"
2. anxiety, depression
4. low self-esteem
5. poor grades & scores
Long Term Consequences of Peer Rejection
1. further deficits in social-cognitive skills
2. behavioral/emotional difficulties exacerbated
3. mental illness
4. absenteeism, dropping out
Most important factor influencing acceptance/rejection
*Parenting style contributes to social competence.
Assumes influences run from parent to child.
1. Evidence from longitudinal research -Authoritative parents that emphasize "do's," patience and dealt w/ non-compliance = greater cooperation over time. Authoritarian parents that used power-assertion & "don'ts" = less cooperation over time.
Children have major influence on parent.
Assumes some reciprocal influence. More influence from parenting on child though!
Baumrind - Authoritative Control
Firm enforcement, require compliance, not being coerced by children.
Baumrind - Authoritarian Control
Failure to share decision-making power w/ children, become inaccessible aka detrimental.
First View on Control - Baumrind
"Good" forms approach; not all types of control viewed as detrimental.
Psychological Control - Barber
Intrusions on psychological and emotional world of child (guilt, love withdrawal) = detrimental as it leads to higher internalizing symptoms and psychological problems.
Behavioral Control - Barber
Efforts to manage or control child's behavior (setting limits, decision-making involvement. = beneficial as lower externalizing symptoms and higher achievement.
Weakness of Current "multiple forms" of Control Approach
Argument now is that all control is likely detrimental! And it confuses parenting dimensions w/ targets.
New Conceptualization of Parenting Dimensions
One dimension: Autonomy Support vs. Control - is control always bad? This argues YES!
What is Autonomy Support?
Behaviors aimed at supporting children's choices, goals & sense of volition = encouraging children to take initiative, solve problems on their own & take their perspective. Includes psych. Autonomy, encouragement + independence.
What is Control?
Behaviors characterized by pressure, coercion, dominance, force children to meet demands, solve problems for them, and take parental perspective. Includes psychological control, power assertion + authoritarianism.
Another Dimension - Structure vs. Ambiguity
All structure is good!
What is Structure?
Organization of parental environment to facilitate children's competence.
What is Ambiguity?
Fail to provide children w/ organization, leading to confusion.
Advantage of New 3-DIMENSION Conceptualization
Facilitates clearer conclusions re: effects of parental control (as well as other dimensions).
New Baumrind Parenting Styles
1. Authoritative = high Structure, high Autonomy Support, high Warmth
2. Authoritarian = high Structure, low AS, low Warmth
3. Permissive = low Structure, high AS, high Warmth
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