45 terms

Memory Chapter 8

the persistence of learning over time; storage and retrieval of information
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event (ex. 9/11)
1st step of information processing/memory storage; how we get information into our brain; input is translated into something meaningful to be remembered
2nd step of information processing/memory storage; retaining info for long periods of time
3rd step of information processing/memory storage; getting the memory back out
three-stage processing
Atkinson and Shiffrin's 3-stage memory model; 1. info is recorded as sensory memory, 2. processed into short-term memory, 3. encoded for long-term memory
sensory memory
the immediate, very brief, initial recording of information from our eyes, ears, taste, touch, and smell info in the memory system; includes most immediate thoughts
short-term memory
memory that holds a few items briefly before they are stored or forgotten; includes some important thoughts; can remember up to 7 things (ex. phone numbers)
long-term memory
the permanent and limitless storehouse of memory; includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
working memory
a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on consciousness, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spacial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of space, time, and frequency and of well-learned information, such as word meanings; (ex. remembering where you ate yesterday)
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious attempts; (ex. studying - what you're doing right now)
the conscious repetition of information; used to encode for storage; as it increases, re-learning time decreases
spacing effect
the tendency for study that is stretched over longer periods of time to yield better results than studying the night before
serial position effect
tendency to remember the first and last items better than the rest; remember things because of their place on the list.
visual encoding
remembering images and graphics or pictures
acoustic encoding
remembering sounds, especially word sounds (ex. it's easier to remember rhymes)
semantic encoding
the encoding of meaning; remembering meaning (ex. word meaning)
mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing
mnemonic devices
memory aids; includes method of loci, peg-word system, acronyms
method of loci
Greek mnemonic device; scholars would imagine themselves in different LOCations and associated each place with an image of the to-be-remembered topic
peg-word system
associating an idea with a peg word; (ex. one is a bun, two is a shoe, three is a tree...I want to remember to buy carrots at the store, so I image a carrot-flavored bun.)
organizing items into meaningful, familiar categories; often occurs automatically; (it's easier to remember 1492 and 1812 instead of 1,4,9,2,1,8,1,2,)
creating words or setences from the first letters of words to be remembered (ex. ROY G. BIV)
Iconic memory
a photographic memory lasting for a few tenths of a second; everyone has it; discovered by Sperling
echoic memory
a momentary audio memory of a sound; sounds, words, and repetitions of sound can be remembered within 3 to 4 seconds, even if attention is elsewhere
long-term potentiation
prolonged strengthening of POTENTIAL neuron firings; by stimulating certain neural connections repeatedly, they become more efficient at releasing neurotransmitters; neural basis for learning and memory
the loss of memory
implicit memory
learning still occurs, but the person doesn't remember what they have learned; implied memories; also called procedural memory or nondeclarative memory (ex. amnesia patient plays golf a lot and gets good at it, but can't remember ever playing golf)
explicit memory
memory of facts that one can consciously known and DECLARE; also known as declarative memory; one can declare that they remember the experience or fact
the neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories for storage; (ex. We don't remember our first 3 years because the this is the last brain structure to develop, yet we still remember how to crawl and eat and breathe)
processing site for implicit memories; memories for skills and conditioned associations are kept here
stores implicit emotional memories; damage to this brain area prevents one from learning to fear
ability to retrieve information not in conscious awareness (ex. fill-in-the-blank test)
ability to identify items previously learned (ex. multiple-choice test)
a memory measure that assess the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
identifying the strands that lead to a specific memory held in storage; gear up the mind to get the specific details out
deja vu
"I've seen this before"; cues from your current situation my subconsciously trigger retrieval of past memories
mood-congruent memory
tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad frame of mind.
confusing the source of info (ex. remembering a movie scene as a real life event)
proactive interference
when stuff you learned in the past interferes with what you're learning now (ex. Grandma can never be a computer expert because she thinks the computer is an old typewriter.)
retroactive interference
when new information makes it harder to remember old information; (ex. There are so many new styles out nowadays that I can't remember the old clothing styles!)
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event (ex. How fast were the cars going when they SMASHED into eachother?)
source amnesia
also called misattribution; attributing the wrong origin to an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (ex. remembering a movie scene as something the really happened)
Repressed Memory
memories that have been unconsciously blocked due to the memory being associated with a high level of stress or trauma.