160 terms

US HISTORY EOCT Practice

These words and terms are assessed on the Georgia US History End of Course Test.
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

House of Burgesses
Virginia's legislative assembly; similar to parliament
Powhatan
Native American chief in Virginia
Bacon's Rebellion
Uprising by poor colonists of Virginia against governor, led by Nathaniel Bacon
King Philip's War
Early, bloody conflict between English colonists and Native Americans
Salem Witch Trials
Girls from Salem, MA accused of being "witches"
New England Colonies
Founded by Puritans for religious freedom-Massachusetts, R.I.
Mid-Atlantic Colonies
Pennsylvania, New York
Pennsylvania
Founded by William Penn as a Quaker colony for religious freedom
New Amsterdam
Originally founded by the Dutch; renamed New York by England
Rhode Island
Founded by Roger Williams, broke away from Massachusetts
Quebec
1st permanent French colony; founded by Samuel de Champlain
Mercantilism
Acquiring wealth to benefit the mother country
Middle Passage
Horrible sea voyage that carried African slaves
Great Awakening
Religious revival; encouraged a personal relationship w/ God
Benjamin Franklin
Great American leader, inventor, diplomat and renaissance man
Transatlantic trade
Trade between England and her colonies
French and Indian War
War between Britain and France over the Ohio Valley region
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended the F and I war; France gave up Canada and all land East of the Mississippi River
Proclamation of 1763
British law; said colonists could not settle beyond the Appalachians
Stamp Act
British tax on all paper products (documents etc.)
Intolerable Acts
Closed the port of Boston as punishment for Boston Tea Party
Sons of Liberty
Led by Sam Adams, protested unfair British rule
Thomas Paine
American patriot; wrote an influential pamphlet protesting Britain
Declaration of Independence
America's most important document; declaring independence
John Locke
Philosopher who believed in natural rights, criticized kings
Thomas Jefferson
Writer of Declaration of Independence; influenced by John Locke
George Washington
America's leader during the Revolution; 1st president
Yorktown
Final battle of American Revolution; support from France was important
Treaty of Paris 1783
Ended American Revolution; America officially gained independence
Articles of Confederation
America's 1st constitution; was too weak because the government had no power to tax, etc.
Federalists
Supporters of a strong central governmentt and rule by the elite; led by Hamilton
Anti-Federalists
Supporters of states' power; farmers; led by Jefferson
Great Compromise
Settled disputes between states with large and small populations; created a bicameral legislature
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the Constitution; emphasizes personal freedoms
Shays' Rebellion
Protest of farmers who couldn't pay their war debts which caused them to lose their farms. showed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation.
Whiskey Rebellion
Rebellion of farmers protesting tax on whiskey. showed the strength of the federal government
Checks and Balances
System where 1 branch can't dominate another
Separation of Powers
Legislative (Congress), Executive (President), Judicial (Courts)
The Federalist
Written by Hamilton, Madison and Jay; encouraged ratification of the Constitution
Northwest Ordinance
Encouraged Westward expansion and creation of new states
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Explored undiscovered western USA
War of 1812
Britain and US; fought over freedom of the sea, impressment
Monroe Doctrine
Outlawed interference in American affairs/Western Hemisphere
Industrial Revolution
Power driven machines replaced hand labor
Eli Whitney
Inventor of cotton gin and interchangeable parts
Manifest Destiny
America's right to expand westward
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Leader for women's rights/suffrage
Seneca Falls Convention
America's 1st women's rights convention
Nat Turner
Led a violent slave revolt
William Lloyd Garrison
Leading white abolitionist, created abolitionist newspaper "Liberator"
Frederick Douglas
Ex-slave abolitionist; created "North Star" abolitionist paper
Missouri Compromise
Maine would be free, Missouri slave; slavery banned north of 36/30 latitude line
Wilmot Proviso
Failed proposal that all land gained from Mexican War be free
Mexican War
US vs. Mexico; US gained California, Arizona, N. Mexico
Compromise of 1850
California would be free; fugitive slave act enforced stronger
John Brown
Abolitionist who led a slave raid on Harper's Ferry; died a martyr
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Law that allowed popular sovereignty (states right to choose between slavery and free)
Abraham Lincoln
US president during Civil War; one of greatest ever
Gettysburg Address
Lincoln's speech honoring the dead soldiers fighting for a great cause
Vicksburg
Turning battle because it cut the South in 2; North controlled Mississippi River
Gettysburg
Worst battle; Confederates no longer tried to invade the North after this
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln's law that freed all slaves in Confederate states
North's economy
Based on factories; industrialism
South's economy
Based on agriculture; slaves
Robert E. Lee
Confederate (Southern) General
U.S. Grant
Union (Northern) General
Dred Scott Case
Said all slaves are property; not citizens. US couldn't prohibit slavery
Presidential Reconstruction
No revenge on the South; lenient policy after Civil War
Radical Republican Reconstruction
Tried to punish the South after Civil War; get revenge
Freedman's Bureau
Sought to help former slaves and poor whites after the Civil War
Civil Rights Amendments
13th, 14th and 15th Amendments
13th Amendment
Outlawed slavery
14th Amendment
Gave anyone born in America equal citizenship
15th Amendment
Voting rights for ALL males regardless of color
John D. Rockefeller
Founder of Standard Oil
Andrew Carnegie
Founder of Carnegie Steel
Transcontinental Railroad
Railroad from the east to the west coast of the US
Thomas Edison
America's greatest inventor-light bulb, phonograph, motion picture
Robber Baron
Rich businessman who put other companies out of business
Chinese
Immigrants who worked on railroads on the west coast
Trust
One company dominates the industry
Ellis Island
Location of immigrant inspection in N.Y.
Wounded Knee
Location of Indian massacre by US troops
Sitting Bull
Leader of Dakota Sioux Indians; defeated Custer at Little Bighorn
Samuel Gompers
Labor leader; head of AFL (American Federation of Labor)
Upton Sinclair
Muckraker who wrote "The Jungle" exposing meat packing plants
Muckrakers
Journalists who exposed corruption
Jane Addams
Reformer who established Hull House for the poor
Jim Crow laws
"Separate but Equal"/unfair laws
Plessy v Ferguson
Court case that established "separate but equal" laws
Theodore Roosevelt
Great US president who established national parks and conservation
Spanish-American War
War w/ Spain; US gained Puerto Rico, Philippines, Cuba
Panama Canal
Allowed ships to pass from Atlantic to Pacific oceans
Roosevelt Corollary
US has the right to intervene in Latin American affairs
Chinese Exclusion Act
Banned all Chinese immigrants
Neutrality
US policy at outbreak of WW1
Reasons US entered WWI
German unrestricted sub warfare; Zimmerman note
League of Nations
International peacekeeping organization; US failed to join
Fourteen Points
Wilson's plan for international peace after WWI
Great Migration
Mass movement of blacks to the north looking for work
18th Amendment
Outlawed alcohol (prohibition)
19th Amendment
Gave women the right to vote (suffrage)
Red Scare
Fear of communism in America
Henry Ford
Inventor of Model T automobile and mass production/assembly line
radio/movies
America's main forms of entertainment during the 20's-30's
Harlem Renaissance
Flowering of Africa American art/achievement (Langston Hughes, Louis Armstrong, etc)
Causes of Great Depression
Overproduction, Underconsumption, stock market speculation
Dust Bowl
Caused by over farming in 1930s
Hoovervilles
Makeshift shacks where those suffering from the depression lived
Black Tuesday
Stock Market Crash
New Deal
FDR's series of programs to end the Depression
TVA
Tennessee Valley Authority-built dams and power plants
Social Security Act
Gave insurance/benefits to retired persons over age 65
Wagner Act
Protected the rights of workers/union members
Neutrality Act
Made it illegal to sell weapons or make loans to nations at war
Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR's "eyes and Ears"; she was a great inspiration to millions
Court Packing plan
FDR's failed plan to pack the court with hand picked judges
A. Philip Randolph
Proposed to march on Washington for civil rights for blacks in US
Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941; Japanese attack on America; reason for US entry into WWII
Lend-Lease Program
US policy to lend weapons to Allied nations during WWII
Internment camps
Where Japanese Americans were placed after Pearl Harbor attack
Battle of Midway
Turning point battle in the Pacific against Japan
D-Day
Largest Allied invasion force in history; goal to regain France
Manhattan Project
Code-name of atomic bomb project
Marshall Plan
US plan to rebuild Europe after WWII by donating billions of dollars
Truman Doctrine
Policy to help any country fight against communism
Korean War
North vs. South Korea; ended in a stalemate at the 38th parallel
Joseph McCarthy
He led communist "witch hunts" during second Red Scare; accused many innocent Americans
Bay of Pigs
Failed US attempt to overthrow Castro; disaster for US
Cuban Missile Crisis
Near nuclear war with Cuba/Russia; Cuban nukes pointed at US
Vietnam War
War fought in Vietnam; US helped South Vietnam vs. communist North Vietnam
Tet Offensive
Largest North Vietnamese (Vietcong) invasion of the Vietnam War
Containment
US policy to stop the spread of communism
Baby Boom
Huge growth of population after WWII
Levittown
Mass produced homes/planned communities for cheap
Interstate Highway Act
National network of highways connecting US cities
Sputnik
First satellite in space launched by Russia
Impact of TV
It influenced American viewers on politics, civil rights etc.
Brown v Board
Outlawed segregation in schools; overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson
MLK's Speech
"I Have a Dream"
Civil Rights Act 1964
Outlawed discrimination based on race, gender, religion
Voting Rights Act 1965
Outlawed literacy tests for voting
Harry Truman
President who integrated he army; huge step for Civil Rights Movement
Warren Court
Became famous for landmark decisions such as Brown v. Board, Miranda v. Arizona, etc.
Great Society
LBJ's program to end poverty/discrimination-(Medicare, Welfare, Civil Rights Act 1964)
Miranda Rights
Law that police must read suspects their constitutional rights upon arrest
SCLC
An organization formed in 1957 by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and other leaders to work for civil rights through nonviolent means
Rachel Carson
Environmentalist who wrote "Silent Spring" criticizing pesticides/pollution
Cesar Chavez
Co-founder of the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee, a labor union formed to seek higher wages and better working conditions for Mexican-American farm workers in California
Richard Nixon
Conservative movement president; wanted to reform Great Society programs; elected in 1968
NOW
This organization was formed in 1966 to pursue feminist goals such as better childcare facilities, improved educational opportunities, and an end to job discrimination
Watergate Scandal
Result of break-in committed by Nixon's administration; goal was to cover attempted burglary
Roe v Wade
Supreme Court decision which gave women the right to choose if they want an abortion
Camp David Accords
Peace agreement between Israel and Egypt led by Jimmy Carter at Camp David
Iran Hostage Crisis
Lasted 444 days; US hostages finally released by Iranian radicals
Reaganomics
Reagan's economic policy; tax cuts, arms build up, budget cuts
NAFTA
Trade Agreement established by Clinton administration between US, Canada and Mexico
Bill Clinton
Second president to suffer impeachment for perjury and obstruction of justice
2000 election
Bush v. Gore, very controversial-Bush won (lost popular vote, won electoral vote)
9/11
Terrorist attacks on US soil (World Trade Center, Pentagon)