Terms in this set (159)

6 basic techniques of psychotherapy:
-Have a consistent framework = analyst relative anonymity, maintaining neutrality and objectivity, regularity and consistency of meetings, starting and ending the sessions on time, clarity of fees, basic boundaries
-Free Association = say whatever comes to mind* after the therapist says something; laying on a couch to inhibit distraction or interference with getting in touch with internal conflicts
-Interpretation = pointing out, explaining, and teaching the client the meanings of behavior that is manifested in dreams, free association, resistances, and the therapeutic relationship itself (insights)
-Dream Analysis = transform latent to manifest; procedure for uncovering unconscious material and giving the client insight into some areas of unresolved problems; dreams have 2 levels of content: latent content consists of hidden, symbolic and unconscious motives, wishes, fears; manifest content the dream as it appears to the dreamer -> latent is so painful and threatening that the unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses that make up latent content are transformed into more acceptable manifest content (process is called dreamwork)
-Resistance = prevents anxiety but works against gaining insight; def: anything that works against the progress of therapy and prevents the client from producing previously unconscious material
-Analyzing Transference = through the interpretation, clients can recognize how they are repeating the same dynamic patterns in their relationship with the therapist with significant figure from the past and in present relationships with significant others
Process:
1. Renegotiate disconnections:
-pointing out a particular pattern of disconnection; quietly allowing retreat from vulnerability,
-ask: can we do something about this difficulty in our relationship?; Is there sufficient mutuality and safety to understand the vulnerability to work through the difficulty together
2. Develop self empathy (same thing as empathy; a way to differentiate self and mutual empathy; what you know empathy to be; being able to look through someone else's lives):
-ask questions about how the client might view this situation if it involved a best friend instead of her or him? Ask her to imaging herself at that age and recognize how small and vulnerable she was
3. May use empathy groups:
-discuss with the client what these may look like (i.e. learn how to use empathy, display empathy to others, have others show empathy to them; role playing, reflection, opportunities to look at different perspectives, self-disclosure, giving scenarios and asking how they would feel in those scenarios; overall increasing their ability to empathize with others and themselves)
4. Deconstruct limiting relational images:
-the therapist looks for the discrepant relational images (those that are more positive or create a different expectation); knowing what you need from the relationship and how you can enhance the relationship or change it to get more of what they need
5. Help the client develop strategies about how to effectively and safely bring new relational expectations into the world (introduce changes into existing r/x)
6. Acknowledge the power of social context
- bringing in the aspects of oppression, racism; different from psychoanalytic
7. Help build relational resilience
- move toward others, one is valuable to others, has something to offer
Family Constellation and Atmosphere:
-The number and birth order, as well as the personality characteristics of members of a family. Important in determining lifestyle and can have an impact on one's later personality and functioning.
-The family and reciprocal relationships with siblings and parents determine how a person finds a place in the family and what he learns about finding a place in the world.
Birth Order:
-Oldest child = receives a good deal of attention, and since she/he is the only child it is somewhat spoiled; asserts her position back in the family after a sibling is born to be a "model" child, bossy, and exhibiting a high achievement drive
-second child = always shares attention with another child; behaves like in a race and makes the 1st and 2nd child compete; develops knack for finding out the elder child's weak spots and gets praise for achieving them; often opposite to the first born
-middle child = feels squeezed out; become convinced of the unfairness of life and feel cheated; "poor me" attitude; can become peacemaker in family conflict; if there are 4 child the 2nd child will feel like the middle and the 3rd will be more easy going and social like the first born
-youngest child = baby of the family and most pampered one; ma develop helplessness into an art form and become an expert at putting others in his service; goes their own way
-only child = high achievement drive, but may not learn to share or cooperate with others; learns to deal with adults well; pampered by parents and can become dependently tied to them; if center stage is challenged then he/she will feel it is unfair
-Restatement: Restating the client's words to form clarity and convey understanding.
-Reflection: Restating the client's words to give deeper meaning regarding the underlying feeling.
-Guesses, Hunches, Hypotheses: Making statements to explain what is happening.
-Questioning: To get a better understanding but also reframe the symptoms for the client.
-Interpretation: Takes guesses, hunches and hypotheses one step further. Focuses on the "whys" of behavior.
-Nonverbal Behavior: Adlerians bring the client's nonverbal behavior to the attention of the client and interpret it.
-Immediacy: Dealing with what is in the here and now.
-Active Wondering: Proposes an alternative to the presenting problem.
-Confrontation: Pointing out discrepancies between what the client says and what the client does.
-Paradoxical Intention: Asking the client to amplify target behavior to show the client how ridiculous it is.
-Creating Images: Asks the client to imagine a ridiculous scene as he or she enters into a threatening situation.
-Asking "The Question": "If your problem were to disappear overnight, how would things be different?"
-Catching Oneself: Having the client catch himself or herself when engaging in irrational behavior.
-Acting As If: Acting out a role that the client thought impossible.
-Spitting in the Soup: Spoiling the game of the client.
-Encouragement: Promotes client self-awareness. Client's aren't sick but only discouraged.
-Midas Technique: Exaggerating the client's neurotic demands.
-Pleasing Someone: Helps put the client back into society. The client is instructed to go out and do something nice for someone else.
-Avoiding the Tar Baby: Acting contrary to what the client expects.
* can't be utilized to help the therapeutic process and keep the client moving forward
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