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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Jones Chapter 16 terms
MOST of them- youre welcome. This version ain't got typos.
Terms in this set (81)
Prince Henry "The navigator"
ruler of portugal. captured the west african muslim city of cueta at the mediterranean sea. this began the portugese exploration of the african coast which started off as a search for gold and slaves but ended in a sea route to asia's spice markets.
Poineered the eastern portugese empire after safely rounding the cape of good hope at the tip of africa in 1487
Amerigo Vespucci and Ferdinand Mellegan
The first guy is who america is named after. these men carefully explored the coastline of south america. their travels proved that the new lands discovered by columbus were not the outermost territory of the far east, but an entirely unknown continent that opened on the still greater pacific ocean.
16th century religious movement that tried to reform the church. it led to the establishment of protestantism and the religious division of western christendom. first broke out in the free royal cities of germany and switzerland.
priesthood of all believers
martin luther wrote, preached, and sang about this and made fun of papal laws as random human inventions. They touched political as well as religious nerves in german and swiss cities.
romes international network of church offices began to fall apart, quickened by people's sense of regional identity, incipient nationalism, and local opinions. people began to question the clergy. city governments tried to stop the growth of church properties and clerical privileges and make the clergy pay local tax code. the gov hired new clerical positions for well trained and conscientious preachers. those who live a life outside the church.
German printer; in 1448 he invented a printing press. Created in Mainz 1450. thereafter, books were well produced. by 1500, in europe printing presses operated in 200 cities.
in 1455 is a printed version of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany in the fifteenth century. Among the printed works, none was more stimulating than this.
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536). aspired to unite the classical ideals of humanity and civic torture with the christian ideals of love and faith.
Confessor to queen isabella and the grand inquisitor. conduit for humanist scholarship and learning. he founded the university of acala near madrid and printed the greek new testament. he created the polygot bible, a six volume work that placed the hebrew, greek, and latin versions of the bible in parallel columns.
Justification by faith alone
Luther came to despise the phrase "righteousness of god" because it seemed to demand perfection in him he knew neither he nor anyone could achieve. because of faith alone, one can get into heaven, you cannot buy your way in and it is internal faith, not external displays of Faith that bring you to god and to heaven. The righteousness that god demands did not result from many religious works and ceremonies, but was given in full measure to those who believed and trusted jesus christ.
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.The penalty (sin) was performed through prayers fasting etc.
Pope Leo X
began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church; condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so; banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church
Archbishop Albert hired John Tetzel to sell indulgences to the people. Tetzel even made up an advertising scheme for the sale of indulgences. He drew up a chart with the prices for the forgiveness of sins. seasoned professional who knew how to stir ordinary people to action.
posted on the door of the castle church in wittenburg oct 31, 1517. he protested the impression that indulgences actually remitted sins and released the dead from punishment in purgatory. luther believed that such claims turned salvation into something that could be bought and sold. the theses made luther famous overnight.
This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
Diet of Worms
The meeting of the representative of the Holy Roman Empire presided over by the Emperor Charles V at the Germain city of Worms in 1521 at which Martin Luther was ordered to recant his ninety-five theses. Luther refused and was declared outlaw
Diet of Speyer
An assembly of German leaders and holy roman empire representatives deciding that each German territory could enforce the Edict of Worms (Luther is an outlaw) as the chose. This gave the German territories sovereignty in religious matters, and helped the Reformation and Lutheranism spread.
The peasant revolt 1525
the peasants believed luther was an ally. they openly solicited the reformers support of their political and economic rights including their release from serfdom. when the peasants revolted against their land lords, luther condemned them as "un-christian" and urged the princes to crush their revolt. 70,000 to 100000 people died and if luther died he would have been one of them.
Luther and the Jews
Luther published a handout "jesus christ was born a jew" where he urged christians to be kinder to german jews in the hope that many might convert to christianity. when the jews wouldn't go his was he urged german princes to forcibly remove non-converting jews to a land of their own.
Sir Thomas Moore
wrote Utopia, about an ideal society where there was no evil, war, crime, etc.; justice used to end crime. writes about an imaginary world where things are more even.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices. He led the reformation.
union of utrecht
The alliance of seven northern provinces (led by Holland) that declared its independence from Spain and formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands
protestants who tried to "purify" the national church of every vestige of "popery" and to make their documents more precise they had 2 special grievances (1) the retention of catholic ceremony and vestments within the church of england and (2) the continuation of the episcopal system of church governess. They worked through parliament to create an alternative national church of semiautonomous congregations governed by representative presbyterians. Elizabeth refused to tolerate this group.
the thirty years war
(1618-1648), Anti-Imperialists (protestant) vs. Imperialists (Catholics), started as a religious struggle, Catholic forces led by Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I (won for the first half), then Protestant King of Sweden Gustavus Adolphus (Gustavus II) won several battles against him; Catholics throughout the war were led by the Hapsburg Rulers of Austria; Bourbon (CATHOLIC) rulers of France wanted to extend power and gain land at Hapsburg expense, supported the Protestant cause; Swedes and French defeated Imperialist army, ended in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia. Four major phases: bohemian phase (1618-1622), the danish phase (1625-1629), Swedish phase (1630-1635), and the french phase (1635-1648). 21 million people died
treaty of westphalia
ended thirty years war in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the holy roman empire to choose their own religion-either protestant or catholic. calvinists are now allowed to worship.
leader of the french reformation. a peoples priest in zurich. his reform guideline was: whatever lacked literal support in scripture was to be neither believed nor practiced by christians. after a public dispute in january 1523, based in that scripture test, zurich became a protestant city and the center for swiss reformation. whatever lacked legitimate support in scripture was neither believed or practiced.
Philip of Hesse tried to unite the swiss and german reformations in an important political alliance. but his plans were spoiled by theological disagreements between luther and zwingili over the nature of christ's presence in the eucharist.
the Roman Catholic doctrine that the whole substance of the bread and the wine changes into the substance of the body and blood of Christ when consecrated in the Eucharist.
the doctrine of the High Anglican Church that after the consecration of the Eucharist the substance of the body and blood of Christ coexists with the substance of the consecrated bread and wine.
16 century ancestors of modern day mennonities and amish. they made themselves known by replacing infant baptism with adult baptism in the imitation of jesus. separated from established society.
humanist and lawyer. 1509-1564. he started calvinism which inspired political resistance in france, the netherlands, and scotland. Calvinists became zealous reformers. he drew up articles for the governance of a new church as well as discipline for people. reformers were exiled from geneva because people believed they were out to create a "new papacy." he wrote the "institutes of the new christian religion"
institutes of the new christian religion
written by john calvin. he wrote biblical commentaries in this edition.
After getting kicked out, calvin was allowed back to geneva where elected officials were favorited to calvinism. new holy laws allowed magistrates and clergy to cooperate in matters of discipline. Calvin thought the elect" sould live a god-pleasing life if they were truly the elect. the consistory became his power and it enforced strict moral discipline and harsh punishment for religious transgressions. very strict, no singing and dancing etc, no separation of church and state, church was the state. After 1555 the city's magistrates were all devout calvinists and geneva became home to many that were exiled protestants who were driven out of france, england, and scotland.
Cius regio, eius regligio
"his kingdom, his religion" meaning that the rule of a land would determine the religion. under this, lutherans were able to retain their church lands. the peace of augsburg made the division of christendom permanent.
king of england 1509-1547. he first married catherine of aragon. they had one daughter, mary but then got a divorce because she couldn't have a son. he then had 5 other wives after her.
He was the French pope who was elected to take the place of Urban VI. He was a prisoner of charles V so he couldn't annul henry's marriage to catherine of aragon.
Holy Roman Emperor and Carlos I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united, inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandparents, he sought to stop Protestantism and increase the power of Catholicism. He allied with the pope to stamp out heresy and maintain religous unity in Europe. He was preocuppied with struggles with Turkey and France and could not soley focus on the rise of Protestantism in Germany. He took clement VII as prisoner.
Henry VIII's advisor. when henry wanted the divorce he went to this man and thomas cranmer. they proposed that the king could simply declare his supremacy over english spiritual affairs as he did, they also said he could settle his own affairs.
Nickname for the Parliament that was called for a 7 year session that began in 1529. the clergy announced henry as head of the church in england "as far as the law of christ would allow." During this period, it passed legislation and placed royal reins on the clergy. This meant that whenever fundamental changes are made in religion, the monarch must consult w/ and work thru Parliament.
Henry VIII and Jane Seymour's son. 10 years old when he became king, made England move towards Protestantism during his reign because of his adult advisor's. Made new practices, clergy could marry, iconic images removed from churches such as thomas cranmers book of common prayer, and communion by the laity was expanded.
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558. She was the wife of Philip II of Spain and when she restored Roman Catholicism to England many Protestants were burned at the stake as heretics
catholic church's attempt to stop the protestant movement and to strengthen the Catholic Church.
organized the society of jesus (jesuits). he was impressed by christian classics. he was so impressed with the self-sacrifice of the church's saints and their methods of overcoming mental pain, that he went through a religious conversion.
a counter reformation. it was recognized by the church in 1549, it had 15,000 people across the world.
It was written by Loyola. It contained the lessons he had learned. This was a training manual for spiritual development and strengthened people to follow the will of God.
Council of Trent
1545-1563 called by pope Paul III. 3 sessions. Catholic church leaders gathered to define their official doctrine; banned sales of indulgences, tightened discipline for clergy, emphasized need for ceremonies, said the only way to salvation was through the church. it reaffirmed traditional catholic doctrine. this started catholic reformation.
Religion in 15th century life
the clergy and religious made up 6-8 percent of the entire urban population and exercised political and spiritual power. there were frequent periods of fasting and 1/3 of the year was given to religious holidays. monasteries and nunneries were present. the children of the most powerful families went there. images of saints were displayed. local religious shrines boomed.. there were sick looking for cures or miracles. clergy walked with whores and children. people complained about the clergy and thought the church influence on education and culture.
Religion in 16th century life
the rich got richer and the poor got poorer. the clergy member population went down and there were less religious holidays. monasteries and nunneries were almost empty because they were transformed into hospices or schools. churches were reduced and were now in vernacular. luther's translations of the new testament were found in homes. the clergy married but payed taxes and were punished. committees had equal numbers of clergy and laity. secular magistrates had the last word. catholic and protestant population was half and half.
family life during the reformation
later marriages. people married in their late 20's. catholics and protestants required parental consent to get married. arranged marriages were common and the parents discussed terms for the marriage. the family size was 8-7 kids but only 2-4 of those survived into adulthood. wet nursing- mothers hired nurses to suckle their children. children aged 8-13 were sent to school or work. widows remarried quickly.
king of France from 1547 to 1559. After his death his sickly 15 year old son took over. he was married to catherine de medici and father to charles X. head of the house of valois. he made peace with the spanish. there was peace until his death where the french wars broke out.
French Protestants named after Besancon Hughes who led geneva's political revolt against the Savoyards. over 2/5 of the french aristocracy became huguenots. they hoped to establish a principle of territorial sovereignity on france like the one within the holy roman empire
huguenot leader who was killed in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. he was wounded by the assassins bullet in catherine de medici's plan with the guises.
Catherine Medici and the Guises
she feared the guises and sought allies with other protestants. the guises massacred protestants worshipping illegally. the whole de coligny "assassination" scandal happened and that was the beginning to a huge massacre of many huguenots and de coligny were killed. thus dispute began the long struggle between catholics and protestants.
Duke of Guise
He busted the protestants worshipping illegally- the mark to the beginning of the french wars of religion. He had led the french to victory over Germany at Metz in 1552. He captured Calais from the English. He was one of the leaders of the French Wars of Religion, and massacred the Huguenots. He was shot, then succeeded by his brother.
Henry of Navarre
Political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty. He found the monarchy wedged between a radical catholic league and vengeful huguenots. He sought to steer a middle course and he received support of neutral huguenots who put the political survival of france above it's religious unity. When he became king in 1594, the fighting in France finally came to an end.
last valois king. catholic league became dominant in Paris so he fled. He was assassinated along with the Duke of Guise. He struck an alliance with Henry of Navarre. As they prepared to attack Paris, he was murdered.
someone who is a neutral catholic and huguenot. They were prepared to compromise religious creeds and save the nation. through the state was more important than the religion.
St. Bartholemews Day Massacre
Due to the assasination of Coligny Gaspard. 3,000 protestants were slaughtered in Paris and 20,000 throughout Europe. Transformed religious struggle in France into an all out war between Catholics and Protestants.
Edict of Nantes
This was published by King Henry VI (former Henry of Navarre) in 1598. It granted the Huguenots freedom of public worship, the right of assembly, admission to public offices and universities, and permission to keep towns. Louis XIV revoked this later
King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England;he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies. 1564 saw fusion of political and religious opposition to Spanish rule.
Battle of Lepanto
A holy league of Spain, Venice and the pope defeated the turks here in the largest naval battle in the 16th century. 3,000 turks died and 1/3 of the turkish naval fleet was sunk or captured.
William of Orange
King of England and Scotland and Ireland. a politique who placed the netherlands political autonomy above religious creeds.
Duke of Alba
hated man by the Netherlands; chosen by Philip II to suppress the revolt in the Netherlands. HIs army came from Milan in 1567 and showed a combined spanish and papal might. A special tribunal, The council of blood or council of troubles reigned over the land.
Pacification of Ghent
A broad movement for the Netherlands independence from spain. After a decade of persecution and warfare, the 10 largely catholic southern provinces in 1576. They were a unified union in opposition to spain.
Daughter of Henry VII and Anne Boleyn. repealed anti-protestant legislation and guided a religious settlement through parliament that prevented england from being torn asunder by religious differences. She had to deal with puritans.
Sir Francis Drake and John Hawkins
Elizabeths privateers, nicknamed "Sea Dogs." They preyed on Spanish shipping to the Americas. Drakes circumnavigation of the globe between 1577 and 1580 was one in a series of dramatic demonstration of english ascendancy on the high seas.
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
went on between 1450 and 1750; ten of thousands of men and women died as victims; accused of being witches/agents of the devil; mostly in German states, Switzerland, and France. People ridiculed the traditional church defenses against the devil and demos, compelling people to protect themselves by searching out witches. Political consolidation by secular governments and the papacy played a big role.
Hateful magic and witchcraft, 70,000 to 100,000 people were put to death for this
nightly gatherings where witches were thought to feast and dance in worship of the devil
magic and the clergy
The clergy was perceived to have practiced magic, that of the holy sacraments, transforming bread and wine into the blood and body of christ, and eternal punishments for sins into temporal ones. And they also exorcised demons.
the idea that one's spiritual fate (heaven of hell) is predetermined before one is born by god.
praise of folly
exposure of human self deception
hatred of women
greatest playwright, took new commercialism = and bawdy pleasures of the Elizabethan age in stride with amusement; interested in politics, member of the kings men. part owner of a theatre. wrote histories, tragedies (unique achievement), and comedies.
French philospher/scientist/mathematician who invented the calculator and worked with probability, conic sections. Famous in math texbooks for his "triangle" of numbers. his work refuted the jesuits and the skeptics. he was convinced that belief in god measurably improved earthly life physiologically and disciplined it morally, regardless of wether god proved in the end to exist.
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679). Saw human beings as particles floating in nature. Thought people only wanted power.
Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes. it's subject was the political consequences of human passions, and its originality lay in (1) it's designation of natural law, rather than common law. (2) its defense of a representative theory of absolute authority against the theory of the divine rights of kings. maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
most influential political thinker of the 17th century. He wrote the Essay concerning human understanding and Two Treatises of Government. advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Two treaties of government
written by John Locke. it was written as a refutation to the argument that rulers were absolute in their power. Rulers remain bound to the law of nature, church is the voice of reason teaching that all people had the right to life, health, liberty, or possessions.
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