A pledge made by GM to change their unrestricted submarine warfare tactics
1st woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives and 1st female member of Congress
American diplomat who urged Wilson to side w/ the Allies
Diplomatic proposal by GM to Mexico offering to help Mexico regain territories taken by the U.S. if Mexico allied with GM
head of U.S. Committee on Public Information- propaganda organization Wilson created.
Espionage Act (1917)
Made it illegal to interfere w/ military operations, interfere w/ military recruitment, etc.
Sedition Act (1918)
Went along with Espionage Act; made it illegal for people to speak out against the war or government
Schenck v. United States
Supreme Court upheld constitutionality of the Espionage Act. Said right to free speech could be limited if it represented a "clear and present danger"
Selective Service Act
Military draft, made sure all groups in population were called into service.
American Expeditionary Force
U.S. Armed Forces sent to Europe to fight in WWI.
David Lloyd George
Prime Minister of Britain during WWI.
France's Prime Minister at the end of the war; major voice in Treaty of Versailles after the war.
Led by Henry Cabot Lodge; they would only support League of Nations if it benefited the U.S.
Opposed Treaty of Versailles and U.S. entry into League of Nations.
anarchist in America
Republican president. Promised "return to normalcy"
Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act (1922)
Raised American tariffs.
Bureau of the Budget
Prepares/administers the federal budget
Part of scandals in Harding administration. Dealt with U.S. Navy oil reserves in Teapot Dome, Wyoming. They were taken.
American novelist. Known for his writings on American society, capitalist views, strong characterization of modern working women.
American author/journalist. Became an ambulance driver in Italy during WWI.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
American author/short story writer. Wrote The Great Gatsby.
Realist painter. Painted American life.
America novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. Innovator of jazz poetry and famous for work during Harlem Renaissance.
Founded the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). Black separatism, economic self-sufficiency, and back-to-Africa movement.
It was illegal to teach the theory of evolution in schools. The American Civil Liberties Union persuaded a teacher, John Scopes, to teach the theory to his high school class. He was arrested and brought to trial and found guilty, which was later overturned.
Volstead Act (1919)
The federal law enforcing Prohibition.
Washington Conference (1921)
Secretary of States Charles Evans Hughes initiated talks on naval disarment. Representatives from Belgium, China, FR, GB, IT, JA, and the Netherlands. Led to some treaties (five, four, and nine-power treaties).
Kellogg-Briand Treaty (1928)
Many nations signed this pact renouncing aggressive use of force to achieve national ends, but it permitted defensive wars and failed to provide taking action against violators.
Dawes Plan (1924)
Cycles of payments: U.S. lends $ to GM, GM pays the Allies, Allies repay their debts to the U.S.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)
Implemented very high tariff rates, signed by Hoover. Led to other countries setting very high tariffs.
Suspension on paying of international debts.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Federal corporation for propping up railroads, banks, life insurance companies. Would grant emergency loans to stabilize these businesses, then they would "trickle down" to smaller businesses and bring recovery.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Guaranteed individuals bank deposits up to $5,000
Civilian Conservation Corps
Employed young men on projects on federal lands and paid their families small monthly sums
Tennessee Valley Authority
Hired people in nation's poorest regions, Tennessee Valley, to build dams, operate power plants, control flooding/erosion, manufacture fertilizer.
National Recovery Administration
Attemtped to guarantee reasonable profits for business and fair wages/hours for labor. NRA could help industries set prices, codes for wages, hours of work.
Schechter v. U.S.
Declared the NRA unconstitutional.
Securities and Exchange Commission
Regulated stock market and placed limits on speculation.
Federal Housing Administration
Insured bank loans for building new houses and repairing old ones.
National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act (1935)
Guaranteed a worker's right to join and union and bargain collectively.
Father Charles Coughlin
Catholic priest, founded Nat'l Union for Social Justice wanted inflated currency and nationalization of all banks. Attacked New Deal.
Wanted federal tax to go towards money for retired people.
"Share Our Wealth" program, wanted promised minimum income for every family.
Congress of Industrial Organizations
Group of unions within the American Federation of Labor who wanted union membership extended to all workers in an industry regardless of race and sex, and including those who were unskilled. Leader John L. Lewis.
Fair Labor Standards Act (1938)
Minimum wage, maximum workweek and time and a half for overtime, child-labor restrictions.
John Maynard Keynes
Keynesian economics. Deficit spending was acceptable because gov't needed to spend more in hard time to boost economy.
Fair Employment Practices Committee
Set up a committee to assist minorities in gaining jobs.
Indian Reorganization (Wheeler-Howard) Act (1934)
Returned lands to control of tribes and supported preservation of Native American cultures.
A. Philip Randolph
Head of Railroad Porters Union.
1932, Secretary of State Henry Stimson declared that the U.S. would honor its treaty obligations under the Nine-Power Treaty (open door in China) by refusing to recognize the legitimacy of any regime that had been established by force. This was a reaction to JA violating the open door policy.
In 1933, Roosevelt promised this policy towards the Western Hemisphere neighbors of U.S.
Pan-American Conference (1933)
At this conference, the U.S. delegation promised to never again intervene in the internal affairs of a Latin American country.
London Economic Conference (1933)
Hoover agreed to U.S. participating in an international conference on economics, however proposals were made to stabilize currencies and Roosevelt thought they would hurt his recovery plans and withdrew.
Provided independence of the Philippines by 1946 and gradual removal of U.S. military present from the islands.
Secretary of State under Roosevelt. Suggested a plan giving the president power to reduce U.S. tariffs by up to 50% for nations that returned the reductions for U.S. imports, Congress enacted this plan.
The Nye committee concluded that in 1934 the U.S. participated in WWI was to serve greedy bankers and arms manufacturers. Influence isolationist legislation.
Leader of the fascists during the Spanish Civil War. Fascist vs. Loyalists (wanted republicanism). Franco's Fascists prevailed and esta. military dictatorship.
America First Committee
Committee created in order to sway American public opinion into NOT supporting entering WWII. People such as Charles Lindbergh gave speeches against entering WWII.
Hitler wanted to take over this part of Czechoslovakia. Roosevelt arranged a conference between Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain (GB), and Daladier (FR) in Munich, however GB and FR just let Hitler take over Sudentenland.
Roosevelt gave a speech after JA invaded China in 1937 and proposed democracies act together to "quarantine" the aggressor. Public reaction very negative.
cash and carry
A belligerent nation could buy U.S. arms if it used its own ships and paid cash.
Selective Training and Service Act (1940)
Compulsory military service, registration of all American men ages 21-35.
BR was being attacked by GM bombing raids, GM submarines attacked BR control in the Atlantic. U.S. sneakily traded 50 older, but still serviceable, U.S. destroyers in exchange for U.S. rights to build military bases on BR islands in Caribbean.
Lend-Lease Act (1941)
Lending arms to help fighting countries. Ending cash-and-carry policy. Justified in defense of four freedoms.
Winston Churchill and Roosevelt met up secretly to discuss post-war peace plans. Some principles were self-determination, no territorial expansion, and free trade.
Office of Price Administration
Regulated civilians' lives. Regulated prices, wages, rents, rationing, etc.
Smith v. Allwright
Ruled that it was unconstitutioal to deny membership in political parties to African Americans as a way of excluding them from voting in primaries.
Korematsu v. U.S.
Upheld constitutionality of internment policy as justified during wartime.
Battle of the Bulge
Allied troops crossed GM border after rescuing FR on D-day.
Battle of the Coral Sea
U.S. aircraft carriers stopped a JA invasion of Australia
Battle of Midway
interception/decoding of JA messages let U.S. destroy four JA carriers and 300 planes.
A General in WWII. Commanded army in Southern Pacific.
The Big Three met at Yalta. Decided GM would be divided into zones, free elections in liberated countries of Eastern Europe, Soviets would enter war against JA, Soviets would control southern half of Sakhalin island and Kurile Islands in the Pacific, and special concession in Manchuria, new world peace organization (future U.N.) would be formed.