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45 terms

AP World History Chapter 23 Vocab

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Population Revolution
huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to industrialization
Protoindustrialization
Preliminary shift away from an agricultural economy; workers became full or part time producers who worked at home in a capatilist system in which materials,work,orders,and sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to Industrial Revolution
American Revolution
Rebellion of the British-American Atlantic seaboard colonies; ended with the formation of the independent United States
French Revolution
Overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy through a revolution beginning in 1789; created a republic and eventually ended with Napoleon's French empire; the source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe
Louis XVI
Bourbon ruler of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Adopted during the French Revolution; proclaimed equality of French citizens; became a source document for later liberal movements
Guillotine
Introduced as a method of "humane" execution; used during the French Revolution against thousands of individuals, especially during the Reign of Terror
Napoleon Bonaparte
Army officer who rose in rank during the wars of the French Revolution; ended the democratic phase of the revolution; became emperor; deposed and exiled in 1815
Congress of Vienna
Met in 1815 after the defeat of France to restore the European balance of power
Liberalism
Political ideology that flourished in 19th-century western Europe; stressed limited government, representation of the people in government; urged importance of constitutional role and parliments.
Radicals
Followers of a 19th-century Western European political emphasis; advocated broader voting rights than liberals did; urged reforms favoring lower classes
Socialism
Political ideology in 19th-century Europe; attacked private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of the means of production and an end to the capatilistic exploitation of the working class
Nationalism
European 19th-century viewpoint; often allied with other "-isms"; urged the importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on ethnic orgins
Greek Revolution
Rebellion of Greeks againts the Ottoman Empire in 1820; a key step in the disintergration of the Turkish Balkan Empire
French Revolution of 1830
Second revolution against Bourbon dynasty; a liberal movement that created a bourgeois government under a moderate monarchy
Belgian Revolution of 1830
Produced Belgian independence fromt eh Dutch; established constitutional monarchy
Reform Bill of 1832
British legislation that extended the vote to most male members of the middle class
James Watt
Devised a steam engine in the 1770s that could be used for production in many industries; a key step in the Industrial Revolution
Factory System
Intensification of all the processes of production at a single site during the Industrial Revolution; involved greater organization of labor and increased discipline
Luddites
Workers in Britain who responded to the replacement of their labor by machines during the Industrial Revolution by attempting to destroy machines; named after the fictional worker Ned Ludd
Chartist movement
Unsuccessful attempt by British artisans and workers to gain the vote during the 1840s
French Revolution of 1848
Overthrew the French monarchy esablished in 1830; briefly established the Second French Republic
Revolutions of 1848
the nationalist and liberal movements in Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary; after temporary success they were surpressed
Louis Pasteur
Discoverer of germs and of the purifying process named after him
Benjamin Disraeli
British politician ; granted the vote to working class men in 1867; an example of conservative politicians keeping stablitity through reform
Count Camillo di Cavour
Architect of Italian unification in 1858; created a constitutional Italian monarchy under the king of Piedmont
Otto von Bismarck
Conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under the Prussian king in 1871; used liberal reforms to maintain stability
American Civil War (1861-1865)
Fought to prevent secession of the southern states;the first war to incorporate the products and techniques of the Industrial Revolution; resulted in the abolition of slavery and the reunification of the United States
Transformismo
Political system in Italy that allied conservatives and liberals in support of the status quo
Social Question
Issues relating to workers and women in Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870
Karl Marx
German socialist who saw history as a class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production ; preached the inevibility of social revolution and the creation of proletarian dictatorship
Revisionism
Socialist thought that disagreed with Marx's formulation; believed that social and economic progress could be achieved through existing political institutions
Feminist Movement
Sought legal and economic gains for women, among them equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on the right to vote; won initial support from middle class women
Mass Leisure Culture
An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; decreased time at work and offered opportunities for new forms of leisure time, such as vacation time and team sports
Charles Darwin
Biologist who developed the theory of evolution of species; argued that all living forms evolved through the successful ability to adapt in a struggle for survival
Albert Einstein
Formulated mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planeary motion and the movement of electrical particles; in about 1900 issued theory of relativity
Sigmund Freud
Viennese physician who developed theories of the workings of the human subconscious; argued that behavior is determined by impulses
Romanticism
19th-century western European artistic and literary movement; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflections
Triple Alliance
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th-century; part of the European balance of power system before World War I
Triple Entente
Agreement among Britain, Russia, and France in 1907; part of the European balance of power system before World War I
Balkan Nationalsim
Movements to create independent states and reunite ethnic groups in the Balkans; provoked crisises within the European alliance system that ended with outbreak of World War I
Industrial Revolution
Series of changes in economy of Western nations between 174 and 20th century; stimulated by rapid population growth, increase in agricultural productivity, commercial revolution in 17th century, and developement of new means of transportation; in essence involved technological change and the application of machines to the process of production
Age of Revolution
Period of political upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848
Conservative
Political viewpoint with orgins in western Europe during the 19th-century; opposed revolutionary goals; advocated restoration of monarchy and defense of the church
Imperialism
The policy of expanding national territory through colonization and conquest