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Chapter 12

STUDY
PLAY
ethnic group
group of people who share common ancestry, language, religion, customs, or combination of such characteristics
ethnic cleansing
the expelling from a country or killing of rival ethnic groups
refugee
one who flees his or her home for safety
urbanization
the movement of people from rural areas into cities
city-state
in Ancient Greece, independent community consisting of a city and the surrounding lands
Middle Ages
the period of European history from about A.D. 500 to about 1500
feudalism
in medieval Europe and Japan, system of government in which powerful lords gave land to nobles in return for pledges of loyalty
Crusades
series of religious wars (A.D. 1100-1300) in which European Christians tried to retake Palestine from Muslim rule
Renaissance
in Europe, a 300-year period of renewed interest in classical learning and the arts, beginning in the 1300s
Reformation
religious movement that began in Germany in the 1400s, leading to the establishment of Protestant churches
Enlightenment
a movement during the 1700s, emphasizing the importance of reason and questioning traditions and values
industrial capitalism
an economic system in which business leaders use profits to expand their companies
communism
society based on equality in which workers would control industrial production
reparations
a payment for damages
Holocaust
the mass killings of 6 million Jews by Germany's Nazi leaders during World War II
Cold War
power struggle between the Soviet Union and the United States after World War II
European Union
an organization whose goal is to unite Europe so that goods, services, and workers can move freely among member countries
dialect
local form of a language used in a particular place or by a certain group
language family
group of related languages that have all developed from one earlier language
Good Friday Peace Agreement
paved the way for Protestant and Roman Catholic communities to share political power in Northern Ireland
romanticism
artistic style emphasizing individual emotions that developed in Europe in the late 1700s and early 1800s as a reaction to industrialization
realism
artistic style portraying everyday life that developed in Europe during the mid-1800s
impressionist
artistic style that developed in Europe in the late 1800s and tried to show the natural appearance of objects with dabs or strokes of color
welfare state
nation in which the government assumes major responsibility for people's welfare in areas such as health and education