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Terms in this set (53)
is a small protein has
The major long-term complication of diabetes in humans is ?
atherosclerotic vascular dz
for insulin is located on ?
Metabolic pathways involved in pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications are :
1-Polyol pathway (Glc->Sorbitol->Frc)
3-PKC activation pathway
5-Oxidative stress pathway
The insulin has a plasma
that averages only about ___?
Insulin is mainly cleared from the circulation w/n ____?
occurs mainly in _______,by the enzyme_______.
The only mechanism by which cells can take up glucose is by ?
Insulin receptor is classified as ______?
Which tissues don't depend on insulin for glucose uptake?
B-cells of islets of langerhans
Activation of the insulin receptor brings about the movement of the vesicles to the cell membrane by?
The major control of insulin secretion is exerted by ?
Feedback effect of plasma glucose
directly on the B cells of the pancreas
Most potent amino acids that stimulate insulin secretion are ?
P-1 is released from ?
GIP is released from ?
Number of amino acids in GLP-1 ?
Number of amino acids in GIP is ?
The only common thing b/w GLP-1 & GIP is that _____?
insulin release from B-cell in
What are the three major mechanisms of
2-regulation of the rate of
from the stomach to SI
Amylin is co-secreted w/?
insulin from beta cells
that are associated w/ increased incidence of DM1 include ?
It has been suggested that the easiest way to differentiate b/w type 1 and type 2 DM is by ?
A physiological condition where the natural hormone insulin becomes
less effective at lowering blood sugars
The 1ry factor that
differentiates type 2 DM
from other forms of diabetes is ?
Insulin resistance occurs most significantly in _____?
Liver & skeletal muscle
is a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors that are related to?
The risk of developing
IHD and related complications
is ______ in patient w/ metabolic syndrome.
Visceral adipose cells produce significant amounts of
cytokines such as?
-IL1 & IL6 & IL18
Monocytes chemotactic protein-1
-Retinol binding protein 4
-Serum amyloid A
Role of infxns in development of insulin resistance is mediated by ?
Glucagon most important fx is ?
Inc blood [Glc]
When the blood glucose concentration falls _____of the glucagon can elevate the blood glucose concentration about _____ .
Glucagon molecular weight ______?
Glucagon half life ?
Effects of glucagon
on fat metabolism
adipose cell lipase
in making increased quantities of fatty acids available to the energy systems of the body.
2-Inhibits the storage of TGs in the liver
3-Prevents the liver from removing fatty acids from the blood.
A protein meal and infusion of amino acids especially___________inc glucagon levels.
Arginine & Alanine
Gulucagon levels inc during starvation,it reaches a peak on the ________of starvation .
GIT hormones that inc glucagon secretion include ?
CCK & Gastrin
Sympathetic effect on glucagon secretion is mediated by ?
Half life of
SS_____(14/28)is more active than SS(14/28) in inhibiting insulin secretion.
Inhibitory effects of
Islets of langerhans
> ⬇ secretion of both
⬇ motility of : stomach ,duodenum,gallbladder
⬇ secretion & absorption
Human pancreatic polypeptide is produced by ____?
F cells in islets of langerhans
Number of aa of HPP is ?
HPP secretion is mainly ?
Actions of HPP include ?
1-Slows absorption of food
2-Smooth out the peaks and valleys of absorption
3-Stimulate the gastric secretion of
HCl and Pepsin
As plasma GLc levels fall ,the first sx to appear are ?
Inhibition of insulin secretion is complete at a plasma glucose level of about ____?
Hypoglycemia triggers inc secretion of at least
hormones ,they are ?
Glucagon and epinephrine
inc glc levels by ?
⬆ hepatic output of glc by ⬆
Polyphagia in DM can be attributed to ?
1-Deficient glc utilization
2-Deficient hormone sensing (Insulin/Leptin/CCK) in the cells of the hypothalamus that regulate satiety
Inc gluconeogenesis in DM is attributed to ?
1-Lack of insulin
3-Inc adrenal glucocorticoids
Insulin resistance in the
poses a double threat than in
,this is explained by ?
1-The liver becomes
to insulin for glc uptake
2-hepatic production of
which leads to ⬆ FBG & PP Glc
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