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61 terms

Biology Chapter 32 & 33

full sections: 32.1 33.1 33.2
STUDY
PLAY
definition of animals
multicellular eukaryotes who are heterotrophic and develop tissues from embroyonic layers
# extant species
1.3 million
# phyla of invertebrates and % of all animals
35, making of 95 % of all animals
cephalization
development of distinct anterior end (head)
parthenogenesis
virgin birth, no mating. 2n mother gives 2n CLONE children
hermproditism
same individual has male and female parts, generally each part still gives sperm to another
choanocytes
flagelleted cells for help in feeding, the COLLAR CELLS of sponges; closely resemble chinoflaggates-type of protist animals are closely related to
body plan
a set of morphological and developmental traits, integrated into a functional whole-the animal.
cephalization
the concentration of sensory equipment at a body's anterior end, including the central nervous system/brain. Evolutionary trend typical of bilaterals
gastrulation
the formation of tissue layers in an embryo
ectoderm
the germ layer covering the surface of the embryo, giving rise to the covering of the animal
endoderm
innermost germ layer, lining digestive tube
mesoderm
a thrrd germ layer present in all bilaterals which lies between the ectoderm and the endoderm
body cavity/coelom
a fluid or air-filled space separating the digestive tract from the outer body wall
Protostomes
development begins with spiral, determinate cleavage; coelom forms from splits in the mesoderm; and the mouth froms from the blastopore
Deuterostomes
Development is radial, indeterminate cleavage; the coelom forms from mesodermal outpocketings of the archenteron; and the mouth forms from secondary openings
clades
derived from shared derived characteristics
4 Points of phylogeny agreement
(1) all animals share a common ancestor (2) sponges are basal animals (3) most animal phyla belong to the bilateral clade (4) chordates and some other phyla belong to the clade Deuterostomia
Sponges (Calcaea and Silicea)
sessile animals lacking tissues, suspension feeders, hermaphrodites. marine and freshwater.
Cnidaria
corals, jellies, and hydras. radially symmetrical w/ grastrovascular cavity & ONE OPENING, either polyps or medusa. have cnidocytes w/nematocysts.
Platyhelminthes
Flatworms; bilateral symmetry, aceolomates, with a central nervous system. no circulation. ONE OPENING= thorax. have flame cells/protonephridia. HERMAPHRODITES or fission
Mollusca
have a soft body generally protected by a hard shell
Annelida
annelids/segmented worms. eat dirt for bacteria and fungi nutrition, then out the anus as castings. means "little rings"
Nematoda
roundworms; terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic and free living. have a touch CUTICLE coating body
Arthropoda
most species diversity, insects, crustaceans, and arachnids. segmented exoskeleton and jointed appendages
echinodermata
sand dollars, sea stars, and sea urchins, aquatic, bilateral as larva but not as adults. using internal canals to pump water throughout body
chordata
90% are vertebrates, also includes lancelets, tunicates and hagfish invertebrates
suspension feeders
capture food particles syspended in the water passing through their body
osculum
large opening which water and undigested food flows out of the sponge
spongocoel
central cavity of sponge which water and particles are drawn into
mesohyl
a gelatinous region of the sponge separating the 2 tissue layers, where fertilization occurs
nematocysts
organelles in cnidocytes which sting the cnidarian's prey
Hydrozoa
both ployp and medusa stages in cnidarians; polyp stage often colonial (only one to include some freshwaters, all else marine) EX OBELIA
scyphozoa
medusa only cnidarians
cubozoa
box shaped medusa
anthozoa
polyp only cnidarians. sea anemones and coral
planarian
typical flatworm, one opening is thorax, has light sensitive eyespots and lateral flaps which detect specific chemicals. NOT a parasite
radula
a straplike rasping organ used by molluscs to scrap up food
Chitons
class of molluscs w/ 8 dorsal plates
gastropods
class of molluscs including snails and slugs, have a spiraled shell into which the animal can retreat when threatened. marine, land and aquatic.
Bivalves
class of gastropods with a shell divided into two halves. no distinct head, no radula, trap food particles in mucus. can have many eyes. clams, musscles, and scallops
cephalopods
class of gastropods, active predators with tentacles, shell is reduced and internal. feet are at the head. only molluscs with a closed circulatory system and good sense organs, complex brain. have camera type eye.
olgichaetes
annelids including earthworms and aquatics, earthworms are hermaphrodites
leeches
vectors of many disease, used to drain blood. have bladelike jaws to slit the skin, use hirudin to stop blood coagulating near incision
Nematodes
roundworms which transport nutrients through fluid in the pseudocoelom and reproduce sexually
Arthropods
means "jointed feet", have segmented bodies, a hard exoskeleton, and jointed appendages. Evolved in the sea and later lived on land.
Arthropod circulatory & respiratory system
open, fluid called hemolymph is pumped by heart through short arteries and into sinuses. Specialized gas-exchange organs have evolved, most aquatics have gills and insects have tracheal systems
chelicerae
clawlike feeding appendages which serve as pincers or fangs of cheliceriforms
cheliceriforms
think fangs, they have a chelicerae, an anterior cephalothorax anda posterior abdomen, lack antenna. 8 legs
pedipalps
a pair of appendages functioning in sensing, feeding, or reproduction; and 4 pairs walking legs
myriapods
terrestrial arthropods with mandibles, among the earliest on land, include centipes and millipedes
complete/complex metamorphosis
85% of insects, egg -> larva -> pupa -> adult
simple (incomplete)
egg-> nymph -> adult (ex grasshopper)
pupa stage
as larva tissues break down, it becomes an adult
insects
first flying animals, internal fertilization
abdomen organ systems
digestive organs and gonads
crustaceans
marine and freshwater, only arthropods w/ 2 pair antennae, large species have gills, small respirator across membrane,
decapods
10 legs, cuticle hardened by calcium carbonate, ex. lobster, crayfish, crab
copepods
planktonic crustaceans, most numerous of all animals
Echinoderms
"spiny skin", prickly from skeletal bumps and spines, have unique water vascular system branching into tube feet. marine
Sea starts
star shaped echinoderms with multiple arms; mouth directed to substrate. Gripping due to adhesive chemicals. Feed by opening bivalve and inserting stomach into the shell