186 terms

Interplay Interpersonal Communication

Interpersonal Communication
STUDY
PLAY
! Cognitive Conservatism
! Seeking out information that conforms to an existing self-concept and ignoring information that contradicts it. ONly seeking messages you agree with
** Reflected Appraisal
** A person's self-concept matches the way the person believes others regard him/her.
! Johari Window Measures
! Describes the relationship between self-disclosure and self-awareness in one square there's stuff that everyone knows about you, another square is what people sense when they meet you for the first moment, another square is the stuff is stuff you don't even know about yourself yet (you might be a great artist) and one square is stuff nobody else knows about you.The relative size of each area changes from time to time according to our moods, the subject discussing, and our relationship with the other person
! Pygmalion effect
! Teachers were told that 20 students showed potential for intellectual growth. Eight months later they showed significantly greater IQ than the remaining children. Teachers gave "smart children" more time to answer questions, provided more feedback to them, they did better because their teachers communicated the expectation that they could.
! Psychological noise
! Cognitive factors that make communication less effective, flooding.
! Biggest disadvantage of CMC compared to other channels of communication
! Lack of richness
! Features which distinguish qualitatively interpersonal communications from less personal exchanges
! Qualitative-people treat each other as unique individuals as opposed to objects
Psychological Reactants
Doing the opposite of what we're told to do. Don't tell people what to do, they will want to do the opposite.
The scarcity of interpersonal communication contributes to their value
Uniqueness, irreplacability, interdependance, disclosure, intrinsic rewards
! Cognitive Complexity
! The ability to construct a variety of different frameworks for viewing an issue. Acting in ways that will produce satisfying results.Think about a situation from others' perspective. open-minded
! Collectivist
! Team players, intuitive, get a feel for the big picture, less prone to see the world in either/or terms, lets not get caught up in a lot of details about whose right or wrong. If we can get a feel for the problem, we can make things more harmonious
! Individualistic
! Superstar, figure out exactly what happened, decide whose fault the problem is so we can fix it
! Uncertainty Avoidance
! The degree to which members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous situations and how much they try to avoid them.
! Low uncertainty avoidance
! Welcome innovation
! High uncertainty avoidance
! Avoid uncertainty, need for clearly defined rules and regulations
** Communication Competence
** Wide range of behaviors, skillful at choosing and performing the most appropriate ones in a situation, Genuine concern for others, self monitoring making mid course corrections in approach
! Ethnocentrism
! Attitude that ones own culture is superior than others
! Self - Concept
! Stable set of perceptions you hold of yourself - mirror physical features, talents, likes, dislikes, values, roles, emotional states. A reflection of the messages you've received throughout your life
! Self-Esteem
! How you feel about how you are (how you feel about your features, talents, likes, dislikes, values, roles, emotional states)
! Equivocation
! With the choice between lying and telling an unpleasant truth, when a friend asks what do you think of my outfit, you could say, It's really unusual, one of a kind. we are being deliberately vague.
! Linguistic relativism
! The language we use what words we need to express our culture
** Reflected appraisal
** You are what others tell you you are. based on what you've been told. you're stupid, you're stupid, you begin to believe it...
! Reference groups
! We judge ourselves by these unhealthy view of reality
** Static evaluation
** I am a certain way and that's all I'm ever going to be, can be changed by using the phrase "In the past...I used to have a hard time speaking in front of large groups... I used to..
! Person's with Positive Self-Esteem
! Think well of others, expect to be accepted by others, evaluate their own performance more favorably, perform well when being watched; are not afraid of others' reactions, work harder for people who demand high standards of performance, inclined to feel comfortable with others they view as superior in some way, able to defend themselves against negative comments of others.
! Person's with Negative Self-Esteem
! Disapprove of others, expect to be rejected, evaluate their own performance less favorably, perform poorly when being watched; are sensitive to possible negative reactions, work harder for undemanding, less critical people, feel threatened by people they view as superior in some way, have difficulty defending themselves against others' negative comments, are more easily influenced.
! First Order Realities
! Physically observable qualities of a thing or a situation, (a grandmothers hug)
! Second Order Realities
! Perceptions that arise from attaching meaning to first-order things or situations (a grandmothers hug is acceptable, a teacher kissing a student is not)
! Androgynous
! Ability to be both masculine and feminine give more sympathy to grieving people, see relationships as opportunities to behave in a variety of ways
Masculine men
see relationships as opportunities to win something
Feminine Females
see relationships as opportunities to be nuturing,
express feelings and emotions
** Self-serving bias
** We judge ourselves in the most generous terms, when she uses profanity, it's a flaw, when we do, the situation called for it!
! Perception Checking
! Describe behavior, give two interpretations, request clarification. You said such and such but something about your voice made me think you may not, maybe its my imagination how do you really feel?
Shared narriative
if a couple shares that the relationship is good bonding has happened.
! I We You Language of responsibility I We You
! Can shape the tone of a relationship, It, but, I You We Combine I with we language in conversations, during confrontations, use you when praising or including others. can escalate or de-escalate a conversation. Focus on not creating defensiveness. I feel sad, I don't understand, I'm concerned, it seems to me
** Non-Verbal Communication
** Unconscious, (trembling hands) relational, (hand motions) ambiguous, (what does his silence mean?) shaped by biology, (two guys holding hands) non verbal is continuous, multi-channeled (face,eyes,body movement, touch,distance) Used to express emotions and feelings and attitudes. has emblems (shrugs, thumbs up)
** Verbal Communication
** Voluntary and conscious, content-oriented, clear or vague, shaped by culture, discontinuous/intermittent, single channel (words only) cues indicate a speaker is finished
! Kinesics
! Movement of our bodies, how a person walks posture, gesture orientation to others
! Manipulators
! Gestures, fidgeting, rubs, holds, pinches, picks, use is often a sign of discomfort or when they lay their guard down more likely to fiddle, pointing, nodding
! Haptics
! Distinguish the study of touching, touch boosts compliance can result in large tips
** Para language
** Describes the way a message is spoken vocal rate, pronunciation, pitch tone volume and emphasis can give the same or many words many meanings, Kids don't understand this type of language they take everything at face value.
! Proxemics
! How communication is effected by the use organization and perception of space and distance.
Components of Listening
Hearing, Attending, Understanding, Remembering and Responding.
! Silent Listening
! When you don't want to encourage a speaker to keep talking, can help others to solve their problems.
! Questioning Listening
! Listener asks the speaker for additional information to clarify, learn, encourage, gather details
! Paraphrasing Listening
! Summarizing facts, data, details or personal information, thoughts, feelings, wants
! Empathizing Listening
! Identify with the speaker, perspective taking, emotional contagion (experience the same feelings) genuine concern
! Supporting Listening
! Reveal the listeners solidarity with the speakers situation offers for help, praise, reassurance, diversion just be there (mourning)
! Analyzing Listening
! Offers interputation of a speakers message "I think what's bothering you is... help people see alternative meanings.
! Evaluating Listening
! Appraises the senders thoughts behaviors in some way favorable or unfavorable You're on the right track... You won't get anywhere like that... negative evaluations make matters worse.
! Advising Listening
! Offer in three conditions. Straightforward, ambiguous, soliciting NOT helpful, may not offer best suggestion, allows others to avoid responsibility for their actions, people don't often want advice.
** Listening responses - more reflective listening
** Analyzing, advising and evaluating
** Listening responses - less directive listening
** Silent, listening, paraphrasing, and empathy
Biological Sex
The best predictor of the ability to detect and interpret emotional expressions better than academic background, amount of foreign travel, cultural similarity or ethnicity.
! Emotional Contagion
! Feelings of those around us are transferred from one person to another "if momma aint happy, aint nobody happy.
** Facilitative Emotions
** Contribute to effective functioning
** Debilitative emotions
** Hinder or prevent effective performance a long duration of debilitating feelings can be just as punishing to the grudge holder as to the wrong doer. Get rid of delibitative thoughts and feelings/ remain sensitive to the facilitative ones.
! Relational Maintenance Strategies - Denial
! respond to one end of the spectrum and ignore the other
! Relational Maintenance Strategies - ! Dialectical Perspective - Disorientation
! fight, freeze or leave the relationship
! Relational Maintenance Strategies - ! Dialectical Perspective - Alternation
! alternating when they spend large amount of time together and other periods live independent lives
! Relational Maintenance Strategies - ! Dialectical Perspective - Segmentation
! compartmentalize areas of the relationship (keeping certain parts of their histories private)
! Relational Maintenance Strategies - ! Dialectical Perspective - Balance
! compromise -everybody loses at least a little of what he/she wants.
! Relational Maintenance Strategies - ! Dialectical Perspective - Integration
! accept opposing forces without trying to diminish (blending family rituals)
! Relational Maintenance Strategies - ! Dialectical Perspective - Recalibration
! reframing dialectical challenges so the apparent contradiction disappears (desire doesn't compete with tension aspect)
! Relational Maintenance Strategies - ! Dialectical Perspective - Reaffirmation
! acknowledges tensions won't disappear, accept, embrace the challenges they present view tensions as part of the roller coaster ride.
! Integration-Separation - involvement within relationship and with our world
! Internal
Connection-Autonomy, close to each other , but seek independence satisfy need for connection and freedom - men usually want more autonomy than women.
External
Inclusion-Seclusion, desire for involvement with outside world, desire to live own lives, free from interference
! Stability-Change - staleness between partners and others outside the relationship
Internal
! Internal
Predictability-Novelty, boredom that can come when partners know each other too well
External
Conventionality-Uniqueness, trying to meet others' expectations as well as their own (stable patterns of behavior)
! Expression-Privacy - disclosure maintain space between ourselves and others
! Internal
Openness-Closedness, questions you don't want to answer for various reasons
External
Revelation-Concealment, how much information the partners want to share with people outside the relationship
! Communication Climate
! Tone of a relationship, classroom, office, reflects the way people in a situation feel about each other
** Positive Climates Confirming Communication
** People feel valued, appreciated, respected, say you exist, you matter, you're important
** Negative Climates - Disconfirming Communication
** People feel disliked, not important, don't care, lack of regard, choose not to speak, avoid interaction
** Confirming messages
** Recognition (write, visit), Acknowledgment (listening), Endorsement (agree with him/her "you're right")
! Disagreeing messages
! Argumentativeness, Complaining, Aggressiveness
** Disconfirming messages
** Impervious response (no acknowledgment ignored), Interrupting response, Irrelevant response (unrelated comments), Tangential response (token, steer conversation in a new direction), Impersonal response, Incongruous response (two contradicting messages one verbal, one nonverbal)
** Creating Positive Climates
** Offer your thoughts, feelings and wants without judging the listener, make documented observations that are specific and concrete. Find win/win solutions, be honest, use I, we, us
! Neutrality vs. Empathy
! Don't get too excited, everybody gets promoted sooner or later vs. I'll bet you're pretty excited about the promotion. Show that you care for the feelings of others.
! Superiority vs. Equality
! You don't know what you're talking about vs. I'm not sure I agree. Treat people as equals even when there are obvious differences.
! Certainty vs. Provisionalism
! That will never work vs. My guess is that you'll run into problems with that approach. Give speaker some way to come back from his/her comments
! Conflict
! An expressed struggle between two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from other party in achieving their goals
** Functional Conflicts
** Rewarding, face challenges, partners feel better about themselves and each other, learn more about each others needs and how they can be satisfied, feelings are clarified, backgrounds are shared, relationship grows deeper and stronger
** Dysfunctional Conflicts
** No one gets what they want, threatens future of a relationship.
! Integration vs. Polarization
! functional (a team seeking a collective goal) vs. dysfunctional (opposite ends, one person is right, the other is wrong)
! Cooperation vs. Opposition
! functional (answer leaves everyone happy), vs. dysfunctional (win/lose attitude no one gives in)
! Confirmation vs. Disconfirmation
! functional (disagree, but not disagreeable-tackle the problem, without attacking the person), vs. dysfunctional (trying to dominate one another)
! Agreement vs. Coercion
! functional (realize power plays are a bad idea), dysfunctional (do it my way, or else)
! De-escalation vs. Escalation
! functional (facing up to an issue), vs. dysfunctional (defensiveness is reciprocal strike back even harder)
Focusing vs. Drifting
functional (one issue at a time) vs. dysfunctional (bringing in issues that have little to do with the problem at hand)
Foresight vs. Shortsightedness
functional (helps to pick their battles wisely) vs. dysfunctional (win a battle and lose the war) fighting over who started a fight
** Conflict Styles
** Avoidance (lose-lose), Accommodation (lose-win), Competition (win-lose) (passive and direct aggression), Compromise (negotiated lose-lose), Collaboration (win-win)
** Avoidance lose-lose
** Ok when if its not your agenda to fight, you're unlikely to get where your going in life if you follow this conflict style. "More marriages are killed by silence than violence."
** Accommodation lose-win
** Ok when its a genuine act of kindness, not all the time though, because people will take advantage of you if you allow them to always have their own way.
** Competition win-lose
** Ok if shared nariative, playing sports- not passive aggression crazymaking, guilt, or direct aggression.
** Compromise negotiated lose-lose
** Ok when you need a quick solution, both get some of what they want, can often find a better solution though.
** Collaboration win-win
** Goal to solve problem that satisfies the needs of everyone, good for long term relationships, takes a lot of effort and time.
! Functional Conflicts
! Integrated partners
! Dysfunctional Conflicts
! Opponents
! Regulator
! Non-verbal cues that help control verbal interaction
! Chronemics
! The study of how people use and structure time. (chronological)
! Nonverbal communication
! Messages expressed by other than linguistic means.
! Halo effect
! The tendency to form an overall positive impression of a person on the basis of one positive characteristic.
Common tendency in perception
We stereotype based on general traits/knowledge about the group vs. the individual ex. all old people have a hard time seeing etc.
! Disinhibition
! Expressing messages without considering the consequences of doing so
! Channel
! The medium through which a message passes from sender to receiver
! Content vs Relational dimension
! The dimension of a message that communicates information about the subject being discussed. "Please pass the salt" vs. the dimension of a message that expresses the social relationship between two or more individuals"whether you like or dislike the other person, comfortable or anxious"
! Computer mediated communication
! Occurs via computerized channels e-mail, instant messaging, computer conferencing.
** noise (all types)
**External physiological, and psychological distractions that interfere with the accurate transmission and reception of a message.
! Qualitative interpersonal communication
! Two people treat each other as unique individuals as opposed to objects
! Self-monitoring
! Attending to one's behavior and using these observations to shape the way one behaves.
! Transactional model
! Depict factors that affect human interaction. looks like two eyes that represent two individuals sending messages that are surrounded by noise, they intersect in the middle (represents the intersecting channel of the message), the pupil is located at the far end of each eye the pupils represent communication send, receives, assigns meaning t
! Physical needs
! Communication is so important that its presence or absence affects physical health. people who lack strong relationships have 2-3 times the risk of early death. divorced, separated, and widowed people are 5-10 times more likely to need mental hospitalization
! Insights from the communication model
! Sending and receiving are usually simultaneous, meanings exist in and among people, environment and noise affect communication, channels make a difference,
! Communication principles and misconceptions
! Created through interaction, subject, how you feel about the person sending the message, can be intentional or unintentional, it is irreversible, and unrepeatable it's impossible to re-create an event. Not all communication seeks understanding,more communication is not always better, will not solve all problems, effective communication is not a natural ability.
** Impersonal vs interpersonal communication
** Superficial or trite response vs. communication between two people
! Challenges of CMC
! Lacks richness-nonverbal cues
** Communication competence (definition and characteristics)
** The ability to achieve one's goals in a manner that is personally acceptable and, ideally, acceptable to others.
! Co-culture
! Ggroup within an encompassing culture with a perceived identity. Elon Employees (co-culture program assistants)
! Collectivistic vs. Individualistic culture
! Members feel loyalties and obligations to an in-group, family, community, work vs.
! Ethnocentrism
! An attitude that one's own culture is superior to that of others.
** High-context vs. Low context
** Culture relies heavily on verbal and nonverbal cues to maintain social harmony vs. one that uses language primarily to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas as clearly and logically as possible.
! intercultural communication
! Occurs when members of two or more cultures or groups exchange messages in a manner that is influenced by their different cultural perceptions and symbol systems.
! Power distance
! The degree to which members of a society accept the unequal distribution of power among members
! Salience
! The significance attached to a particular person or phenomenon
! Uncertainty avoidance
! The tendency of a culture's members to feel threatened by ambiguous situations, and how much they try to avoid them.
** Developing intercultural competence 57-62
** Motivation (desire),attitude (culture-general), tolerance for ambiguity (reduce uncertainty about another culture), open-mindedness (overcomes preexisting stereotypes), knowledge (know what approaches are appropriate), skill (passive observation, active strategies i.e. reading, and self-disclosure)
! Cultural values and norms 43-50
! High vs. Low context, Individualism vs. collectivism, Power distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Achievement (material success) vs. Nurturing (support of relationships)
! Facework
! Actins people take to preserve their own and others' presenting images.
! Identity management
! The communication strategies people use to influence how others view them.
! Perceived-self
! The person we believe ourselves to be in moments of candor. It may be identical with or different from the presenting and desired selves.
! Presenting-self
! The image a person presents to others. It may be identical with or different from the perceived and desired selves.
! Self-fulfilling prophecy
! The casual relationship that occurs when a person's expectations of an event and her or his subsequent behavior based on those expectations maek the outcome more likely to occur than would otherwise have been true.
! Significant Other
! A person whose opinion is important enough to affect one's self-concept strongly.
! Social comparison
! Evaluating oneself in terms of or by comparison to others.
! Public and Private selves
! Our many identities some private, and other public often quite different perceived self (honest self-examination), presenting self (way we want to appear to others)
! Managing impressions
! Care you take when drafting a resume, a thank-you letter, a love note, strategic decisions about appearance. the way the message is presented can say a lot about the person.
! Self-Disclosure
! The process of deliberately revealing information about oneself and that would not normally be known by others.
! Attribution
! The process of attaching meaning to another person's behavior.
! Confirmation-bias
! The tendency to seek out and organize data that supports already existing opinions.
! Empathy
! The ability to project oneself into another person's point of view in an attempt to experience the other's thoughts and feelings.
! Gender
! Psychological sex-type
! Interpretation
!The process of attaching meaning to sense data. Synonymous with decoding.
! Narrative
! The stories we use to describe our personal worlds.
** Psychological sex type
** When a person, regardless of his/her biological sex, can act in a masculine or feminine manner or can exhibit both types of characteristics (androgynous) or neither (undifferentiated) the word gender is a short-hand term for psychological sex-type.
! Punctuation
! The process of determining the causal order of events.
! Selection
! A phase of the perception process in which a communicator attends to a stimulus from the environment. Also, a way communicators manage dialectical tensions by responding to one end of the dialectical spectrum and ignoring the other.
** Influences, common tendencies Perceiving Others
** Reality is constructed (first-order, second-order), selection, organization, interpretation, negotiation, Physiological influences, senses, age, health, hunger, biological cycles, neurobehavioral challenges, Psychological influences, mood, self-concept, Social Influences, sex, gender, sex types, occupational roles, Cultural influences, We make snap judgments, We cling to first impressions, We judge ourselves more charitably than we do others, We are influenced by our expectations, We are influenced by the obvious, We assume others are like us.
! But statement
! A statement in which the second half cancels the meaning of the first, for example,"I'd like to help you, but I have to go or I'll miss my bus."
! Convergence
! The process of adapting one's speech style to match that of others with whom one wants to identify.
! Divergence
! Speaking in a way that emphasizes difference from others.
! Fact vs. Opinion statement
! Claims can be verified (It rains more in Seattle than in Portland) vs. Based on speaker's beliefs (The climate in Portland is better than in Seattle).
! Sexism and Racism
! Words, phrases and expressions that differentiate between male/females, exclude, or diminish either sex and Classifies members of one racial group as superior and others as inferior.
! Language of Responsibility
! Confusion: Fact-Opinion (true or false), Fact-Inference (conclusions arrived at from an interpretaion of evidence), Emotive Language (announce speakers attitude)
! Emblems
! Deliberate nonverbal behaviors with precise meanings, known to virtually all members of a cultural group.
! Concealing/Deceiving
! Sometimes we keep silent, sometimes we hedge, and sometimes we lie. aimed at saving the face of the communicators involved.
! Managing Identity
! Getting others to view us as we want to be seen. Manner (the way we act), Appearance (the way we dress, artifacts we wear, hair, makeup, scents), Setting (physical items we surround ourselves with, belongings, vehicles, where we live)
! Types of nonverbal communication
! Oculesics (Face and Eyes), Kinesics (Body Movement), Haptics (Touch) Paralanguage (Voice, disfluences-stammering), Proxemics (Distance-personal space, intimate, personal, social, public, distance), Territory, Chronemics (Time), Physical Attractiveness, Clothing, Physical environment,
! Ambushing
! A style in which the receiver listens carefully in order to gather information to use in an attack on the speaker
! Defensive listening
! A response style in which the receiver perceives a speaker's comments as an attack.
! Hearing vs. Listening
! First stage in process, sound waves are received vs. Process of hearing, attending, understanding, remembering, and responding to messages.
! Insulated listening
! A style in which the receiver ignores undesirable information.
! Mindful vs. Mindless listening
! Careful and thoughtful attention and responses to others' messages vs. Reacting to others' messages automatically and routinely, without much mental involvement.
! Pseudolistening
! An imitation of true listening in which the receiver's mind is elsewhere.
! Selective listening
! A style in which the receiver responds only to messages that interest him/her.
! Stage-hogging
! A style in which the receiver is more concerned with making his/her own point than in understanding the speaker.
! Challenge of Listening
! Not easy, information overload, personal concerns, rapid thought, noise, All listeners do not receive the same message, Poor listening habits (pseudol, stage hogging, selective, filling in gaps, insulated, defensive, ambush listening)
! Flooding
! Being so preoccupied with something that was said that remains in your head as self-talk that you can't hear what is being said in the now.
! 7 Fallacies
! approval, causation, catastrophic expectations, helplessness, over generalization, perfection, should; self-talk.
! Influences on Emotional Expression
! Personality (extroverted/introverted people), Culture (events generate quite different feelings in different cultures), Gender (shape ways in which men/women experience and express emotions), Social Conventions and Roles (unwritten rules of communication that relate to sharing how they feel), Fear of Self-Disclosure (risky, unpleasant consequences, misunderstood, construed as romantic invitation etc), Emotional contagion (emotions are transferred from one person to another)
! Managing Difficult Emotions
! Manage between facilitative and debilitative, Thoughts cause feelings, Irrational thinking and Debilitative Emotions (fallacy of perfection, approval, should, over generalization, causation, helplessness, catastrophic expectations)
! Dialectical tension
! Relational tensions that arise when two opposing or incompatible forces exist simultaneously.
! Metacommunication
! Messages (usually relational) that refer to other messages; communication about communication.
! Intimacy
! A state achieved via intellectual, emotional, and / or physical closeness as well as via shared activities.
** Dimensions of Intimacy
** Intimacy, comes in many forms; emotional, financial, physical, intellectual, shared activities can vary, some exhibit all four qualities not all operate at highest level of intimacy (gender, culture, computer-mediated), Living without intimate relationships can cause problems in creating and sustaining other relationships
! Why we form relationships
! Attraction, (appearance, similarity, complementarity, rewards, competency, proximity, disclosure) Intimacy, (gender, culture, computer-mediated), and Commitment . Living without intimate relationships can cause problems in creating and sustaining other relationships
! Endorsement
! Means you agree with her/him or otherwise find him/her important. " (I can see why your were so angry", "You're right!)
! Acknowledgement
! Acknowlege the ideas and feelings of others (listening, paying attention to another person's words)
! Recognition
! Most fundamental act of confirmation (respond to others e-mail, phone calls, eye-contact)
! 6 Disconfirming responses
! impersonal, impervious, incongruous, interrupting, irrelevant, tangential
! Defensiveness
! The attempt to protect a presenting image a person believes is being attacked.
! Description vs. Evaluation
! A way to offer your thoughts, feelings, and wants without judging the listener ( I don't understand the point you're trying to make) vs. A message that judges the other person, in a negative way ("You're not making any sense." "You're inconsiderate", "That's an ugly tablecloth")
! Control vs. Problem Orientation
! Sender seems to be imposing a solution on the receiver ("Get off the phone-now!") vs. Focus on finding a solution that satisfies both ("I need to make an important call. If you can give me 5 minutes, I'll let you know when I'm off.")
! Assertiveness
! expressing one's opinions forcefully without offending others
! How Communication Climates Develop
! By the degree to which people see themselves as valued, confirming (recognition, acknowledgment, endorsement) or disconfirming communication, (disagreeing message, argumentativeness, complaining, aggressiveness) (Impervious , Interrupting , tangential , impersonal, and ambiguous responses)
! Offering Constructive Criticism
! Check your motives (for your good or for theirs), Choose a good time, Use sandwich method, Follow up.
! Conflict Ritual
! Repeating patterns of interlocking conflict behaviors.
! Passive Aggression
! An indirect expression of aggression, delivered in a way that allows the sender to maintain a facade of kindness.
! Conflict Management 7 steps
! Define your needs, Share your needs with the other person, Listen to the other person's needs, Generate possible solutions, Evaluate the possible solutions and choose the best one, Implement the solution, Follow up the solution.
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