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27 terms

AP Psych. Ch 7.4-.7 Cognition(Memory)

STUDY
PLAY
Transience
impermanence of long term memory, based on the idea that LTM gradually fade over time
Absent-Mindedness
forgetting caused by lapses in attention
Blocking
forgetting when an item in memory cannot be accessed, caused by interference
Proactive Interference
previously stored information prevents learning/remembering new information
Retroactive Interference
newly learned information prevents retrieval of previously learned material
Serial Position Effect
form of interference related to the sequence in which information is presented. items in the middle usually forgotten
Misattribution
memory fault that occurs when memories are retrieved but are associated with the wrong time, place or person
Expectancy Bias
tendency to distort recalled events to make them fit one's expectations
Mnemonics
technique for improving memory, making connections b/w new material and information already in LTM
Method of Loci
technique that involves associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar physical locations
Concepts
mental representations of categories of items or ideas, based on experience
Thinking
cognitive process involved in forming a new mental representation by manipulating available information
Natural Concepts
representation of objects and events drawn from our direct experience
Artificial Concepts
defined by rules, word definitions, and mathematical formulas
prototype
most representative example of a conceptual category
Algorithms
problem-solving procedures or formulas that always come out correctly
Schema
knowledge cluster or general conceptual frame work that provides expectations about topics, events, objects, people, and situations in one's life
Script
knowledge about sequences of events and actions expected to occur in particular settings
Heuristics
"rules of thumb" used as short cuts to solve problems
mental set
tendency to respond to a new problem in the manner used for a previous problem- doesn't always work
Functional Fixedness
when the function of a familiar object becomes so set, or fixed, you cannot see a new function for it
Hindsight Bias
tendency to "second guess" or believe that one could have predicted the event in advance, form of distorted thinking appears after an event has occurred
Anchoring Bias
faulty heuristic caused by basing an estimate on a completely unrelated quantity (Tversky & Kahneman)
Representative Bias
strategy based on the presumption that once people or events are categorized, they share all the features of other members
Availability Bias
strategy that estimates probabilities based on information that can be recalled from personal experience
Creativity
mental process that produces novel responses that combine to the solution of problems
Aptitudes
innate potentialities (contrasted w/ abilities acquired by learning) Howard Gardner