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In 1900, what area of Europe was the most urbanized?


The term 'labor aristocracy' in this text refers to...

This was the union of skilled workers in the working classes that had a set behavioral code. They were usually run by construction bosses and factory foremen

Who is remembered for rebuilding Paris?


What did the the improved economic conditions in the 19th century lead to?

The expectation that married women would not work outside the home.

Who wrote the 100-volume masterpiece of realism?

Honoré de Balzac

List, according to the text, 4 typical working class leisure activities.


Who is responsible for the practice of antiseptic sterilization?

Joesph Lister

Name 4 common aspects the united the middle class:


The decline of the working-class church attendance has been attributed to what 4 conditions?


Who believed that death and disease caused poverty?

Edwin Chadwick

What was the flaw in Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's theory of evolution?

The inheritance of acquired characteristics.

The breakthrough development of the germ theory was the work of..

Louis Pastuer

Napoleon believed the rebuilding Paris would lead to..


As the 19th century progressed, the upper middle class tended to merge with who?

The old aristocracy

Who did the white-collar employees identify with?


According to the text, what was one of the social functions of the "labor aristocracy's" strict moral codes?

To maintain their unstable social and economic position.

In the Balkans, how did the white-collar workers separate themselves from those who worked with their hands?

The grew their fingernails out to extreme lengths.

What was most responsible for the poor conditions in early industrial cities?

Ignorance and The Lagacy of Rural Housing Conditions

The decline in illegitimacy rates after 1850 was probably the result of..


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