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Marketing Intermediary

Organizations that assist in moving goods and services from producers to business (BSB) and from businesses to consumers (B2C).

Channel of Distribution

A whole set of marketing intermediaries such as agents, brokers, wholesalers, and retailers, that join together to transport and store goods in their path (or channel) from producers to consumers.


A marketing intermediary that sells to other organizations.


An organization that sells to ultimate consumers.

Partial Wholesaler



Marketing intermediaries who bring buyers and sellers together and assist in negotiating an exchange but don't take title to the goods.


In economics, the want-satisfying ability, or value, that organizations add to goods or services.

Time Utility

Adding value to products by marking them available when they're needed.

Place Utility

Adding value to products by having them where people want them.

Form Utility

Changing raw materials or putting parts together to make them more useful.*

Possession Utility

Doing whatever is necessary to transfer ownership from one party to another, including providing credit, delivery, installation, guarantees, and follow-up service.

Information Utility

Adding value to products by opening two-way flows of information between marketing participants.

Service Utility

Adding value by providing fast, friendly service during and after the sale and by teaching customers how to best use products over time.

Specialty Retailers

Category of retail operations characterized by more narrow focus than a department store and offering a relatively narrow merchandise mix aimed at a particular target audience.*

Department Retailers

Sells a wide variety of products in separate departments.*

Chain Retailers

Operate multiple outlets under common ownership.*

Discount Retailers

Merchandise is below traditional retail prices; buy merchandise early in the season that can be reoffered over and over again; self-service; mass-manufacturing strategies; quantity discounts from manufacturers.*

Intensive Distribution

Distribution that puts products into as many retail outlets as possible.

Selective Distribution

Distribution that sends products to only a preferred group of retailers in an area.

Exclusive Distribution

Distribution that sends products to only one retail outlet in a given geographic area.

Non-Store Retailing

The selling of products outside the confines of a retail facility. For example, selling to final consumers through direct mail, catalogs, telephone, the internet, tv home shopping, home and office parties, and door to door.*

Supply Chains

The sequence of linked activities that must be performed by various organizations to move goods from the sources of raw materials to ultimate consumers.

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