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Lycoming Engine Overview
Terms in this set (24)
The _____ is designed to provide an uninterrupted flow of clean fuel from the fuel tanks to the engines.
Fuel flows from the tank to the fuel selector.
From the selector fuel flows through a sump.
From the sump the fuel passes through the electrically-driven auxiliary fuel pump. The auxiliary pumps are used for engine starting, cross-feeding operations, and in the event that an engine-driven main pump fails.
Fuel is pumped by the engine-driven fuel pump to the carburetor, where it is mixed with air and sent to the intake manifold.
The primer can pump additional fuel directly into cylinders 1, 2, and 4
Electricity powers the starter, which rotates the flywheel.
The flywheel rotates the crankshaft.
The crankshaft's rotation rotates the magnets in the magneto.
The magneto generates voltage to jump a spark across the spark plug gap in each cylinder.
The spark ignites the fuel/air mixture.
Outside air is brought into the engine via the filtered intake port.
Filtered air flows into the carburetor and through a venturi, which creates a low-pressure area.
Higher, ambient pressure in the float chamber forces fuel to flow through a discharge nozzle.
Fuel flows into the airstream where it is mixed with the flow of air.
The fuel/air mixture is drawn through the intake manifold and into the cylinders.
The Seminole uses a wet-sump oil system, meaning the oil is located in a sump, which is an integral part of the engine.
The oil pump draws oil from the sump and routes it to the engine.
After the oil passes through the engine, it returns to the sump.
The alternator generates alternating current by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Alternating current is converted to direct current before it is used by the aircraft's electrical equipment.
Each O-360 has a 70-amp belt-driven alternator. This provides sufficient current to operate the Seminole's entire electrical system even if one alternator or engine fails.
The carburetor blends air and fuel before they are sent to the engine's cylinders.
The O-360 uses a float-type carburetor.
The mixture control determines how much fuel the carburetor adds to each pound of air flowing through, while the throttle determines how much air flows through the carburetor.
Accelerator PumpAn accelerator pump is a device found on a carburetor that sprays a controlled amount of fuel into the airstream every time the throttle is opened.The amount of fuel introduced into the intake by the accelerator pump is usually sufficient to start the engine, except in cold-weather conditions.
Carburetor heat provides heated, unfiltered air to melt any carburetor ice accumulation.
Activating carb heat also provides alternate air, in the event the primary air source becomes blocked.
Learn More — Induction System
Counterweights cause the propeller blades to move toward the high-pitch and feather positions.
Centrifugal force acting on the counterweights counteracts the aerodynamic twisting forces that try to move the blades toward a low-pitch position.
A _____ is the central working part of a reciprocating engine. It is the space in which a piston travels.
used to expel excess fluids, such as oil, out of the system.
Engine Data Plate
The engine data plate provides identifying information about the engine, including: rated horsepower, type certificate number, design number, serial number, manufacturer, and model number.
Engine pushrods are part of the system that actuates the intake and exhaust valves in the cylinder head.
A lobe on the camshaft pushes on one end of the rod, which then pushes a small rocker arm to open the valve.
Precise positioning of the camshaft lobes ensures that the valves open at the proper time.
The rods are housed in metal tubes, highlighted here.
The flywheel becomes geared directly to the starter when the starter is engaged, and is attached to the alternator by a belt.
The flywheel evens out any variations in engine RPM.
The O-360 engine has both engine-driven main fuel pumps and electrically-driven auxiliary fuel pumps (located in the wings).
The main fuel pumps deliver a continuous supply of fuel at the proper pressure at all times during operation of the aircraft engine.
The fuel pumps supply fuel to the carburetor, while the float in the carburetor controls the fuel flow.
supply the fuel/air mixture to the cylinders.
A magneto is a small electric generator containing a permanent magnet.
Magnetos are used to provide high-voltage pulses of electricity to the spark plugs.
For redundancy, the engine has two independent magnetos
used to check the oil level in the engine. The oil capacity of the engine is 6-8 quarts.
collects and removes contaminants from the engine oil.
Oil Sump / Induction Chamber
Oil for the engine pools in a reservoir called an oil sump.
The O-360 uses a wet-sump system; the sump/oil reservoir is an integral part of the engine.
The induction chamber is built with the oil sump around it.
Air passes through the induction chamber, then through intake pipes to the cylinders.
The fuel primer draws fuel from the tanks and sprays vaporized fuel directly into the cylinders prior to starting the engine.
Priming is helpful during cold weather because there is not enough heat available to vaporize the fuel in the carburetor.
A propeller governor senses the speed of an aircraft engine and changes the propeller blade angle to maintain a selected RPM regardless of the operational conditions of the aircraft.
The governor automatically varies oil pressure inside the propeller hub to change the propeller blade pitch in order to maintain constant RPM
When oil pressure is reduced, the blades are driven to a high pitch - low RPM (feathered) position.
When oil pressure is increased, the blades are moved to a low pitch - high RPM (unfeathered) position.
Propeller Hub (Spring)
The propeller hub contains a nitrogen-charged cylinder and spring.
The forces produced by the nitrogen-charged cylinder and spring continually act against the oil pressure, driving the blades to a high pitch - low RPM (feathered) position.
If the engine loses oil pressure, the nitrogen cylinder and spring will automatically move the propeller toward the feathered position.
The Seminole is equipped with two-bladed, controllable pitch, constant speed, full feathering metal propellers manufactured by Hartzell.
The propeller is 74 inches in diameter.
_____ use electric current from the ignition system to generate a spark inside the combustion chamber, igniting the compressed fuel/air mixture.
The plug must also be able to contain the combustion pressure within the engine.
The O-360 is equipped with a direct-cranking electric starter.
Electric power for starting is supplied by an onboard battery, though external power can be supplied from an external battery receptacle if the battery is weak or dead.
When operating, the starter is geared to the flywheel. Once the engine is started, the starter disengages.
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