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Weathering, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks
The Rock Cycle
the processes by which rock is formed, modified, transported, decomposed, and reformed as a result of the Earth's internal and external processes.
The chemical and physical breakdown of rocks exposed to air, moisture, and organic matter.
The loose layer of broken rock and mineral fragments on the Earth's surface.
rock is physically broken up, but there is no change in the mineral content or chemical composition.
the decomposition of rocks and minerals as a result of chemical and biochemical reactions.
A type of chemical weathering that is leads to the change in silicate minerals to salt and clays.
A type of chemical weathering that alters iron and manganese by exposure to oxygen.
is very resistant to weathering and does not dissolve quickly or have an ion exchange.
If there are many cracks or joints in a rock, water can get in and weather rocks more quickly through its
The uppermost part of the regolith, the part that supports rooted plant life.
Partially decayed organic matter.
A succession of zones within a soil profile with distinct physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
The sequence of soil horizons down to the bedrock.
The transportation of regolith from one place to another and abrasion of the Earth's surface by materials being transported.
Downslope movement of regolith and/or bedrock masses due to the pull of gravity.
Sediments moving by bouncing off of each other.
Erosion by water
Sediments carried in the suspended load(small) and the bed load(large).
Erosion by wind
Wind cannot move sediments that are as large as water can carry. Sorts sediment better than water.
Erosion by ice
sediment carried by glaciers and carves groves in the bedrock.
A sudden vertical drop of rock fragments and debris.
Rapid displacement of mass movement down a planar slope.
a rotational movement of rock.
Any mass wasting process that involves flowing of mass regolith.
Imperceptibly slow downslope flow of regolith.
Uplift of surface rock and regolith as a result of the freezing of subsurface water to form ice.
produced from weathering products of pre-existing rocks or accumulated biological matter.
rocks produced from rock fragments.
rocks produced by precipitation of dissolved ions in water.
rocks produced by accumulation of biological debris, such as swamps or bogs.
loose, solid particles originating from weathering and erosion of pre-existing rocks.
Movement of sediment away from its source. Typically by water, wind, or ice.
Settling and coming to rest of transported material.
Sediment must be preserved, as by burial with additional sediments, in order to become and sedimentary rock.
The processes of changing sediment to sedimentary rock.
Classified by grain size and shape. Ex. Breccia, Conglomerate, Sandstone, and Shale.
smaller than sand-sized grains
Chemical sediments that form when water evaporates.
Iron-rich siliceous sediments precipitated out of anoxic sea water more than 18 billion years ago.
Limestones, Chert, Peat, and Coal
Carry a lot of sediments in every size of clast. Deposits can be well to poorly sorted, to graded beds.
Generally well-sorted sediments or graded beds in deltas that form when streams flow into a lake.
generally poorly-sorted and angular.
Wind blown sediments. Best sorted sediments because only smallest grains are carried by normal winds.
The mineralogical, chemical, and structural adjustments of solid rocks to physical and chemical conditions at depths below the region of sedimentation and diagenesis.
the alignment of minerals in metamorphic rocks.
The quality that causes low grade metamorphic rocks to part or split along a plain.
When the oriented mica grains are large enough to be seen with the naked eye.
Effects of Temperature
As temp increases the minerals that grow are different.
occurs when rocks are heated and chemically changed by the intrusion of a body of hot magma.
occurs in a shock such as an asteroid.
sedimentary rocks that are deeply buried (>10 km) in trenches are altered.
of an extensive area of the crust as a result of the stresses and high temps associated with plate convergence, collision, and subduction.
minerals that form at specific pressures and temperatures.
lines on maps of occurence of index mineral assemblages.
Slate, Phyllite, Schist and Gneiss
Amphibolite, Granulite, Blueschist, Eclogite
Marble and Quartzite