57 terms

Period 1 - AP US HISTORY

Some terms for Period 1 in the revamped AP US HISTORY
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Clovis People
a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named after distinct stone tools found at sites near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s. Clovis people are considered to be the ancestors of most of the indigenous cultures of the Americas.
Olmec
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., the Olmec people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction. (86)
Meso-Americans
The peoples of what is now Mexico and much of Central America, who formed organized societies as early as 10,000 BC. The first complex society in the Americas emerged in approximately 1,000 BC, while a more sophisticated culture came at around 800 AD. Meso-American groups included the Mayans and the Aztec, or as they called themselves, the Mexica. The Mayan civilization developed a written language, a numerical system, an accurate calendar, an advanced agricultural system, and important new international trade routes. The Mexica established a city called Tenochtitlan and soon became the dominant power of central Mexico, and beyond, through a system of tribute enforced by military force. These civilizations were for many centuries the center of civilized life in the Americas, and the trade and culture hub. They were brought down by the Europeans due to disease and disunity, but were impressive civilizations nonetheless.
Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
Cahokia
A mound builder settlement in the Late Woodland era around 600; located near Illinois; known for their Monks Mound; capable of producing large amounts of food to sustain their culture
Woodland Indians
tribes of Native Americans that lived in the forested areas east of the Great Plains and extended from New England and Maryland to the Great Lakes Area and into Maine. They lived in the forests near lakes or streams,
Iroquois Confederation
5 tribes that came together but did not last
Black Death
The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346-53.
Christopher Columbus
1451-1506 AD Italian navigator and explorer in the service of Spain who, by sailing west in search of a trade route to Asia, "Discovered" the "New World" in 1492. He made subsequent voyages in 1493, 1498, and 1502, exploring the Caribbean, and the coasts of Central and South America.
Algonquians
American Indians in an area extending from Labrador westward to the Rocky Mountains, west-southwestward through Michigan and Illinois, and southwestward along the Atlantic coast to Cape Hatteras, including especially Arapaho, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Cree, Fox, Massachusett, Micmac, Ojibwa, and Powhatan
Pueblos
American Indians of what is now the southwestern United States, whose name was based on their adobe dwelling centers
Nomads
Groups of people who move from place to place in search of food, water, and pasture for their animals, usually following the seasons
Henry the Navigator
This Portuguese prince who lead an extensive effort to promote seafaring expertise in the 14th century. Sent many expedition to the coast of West Africa in the 15th century, leading Portugal to discover a route around Africa, ultimately to India.
Conquistadors
Early-sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru. (Examples Cortes, Pizarro, Francisco.)
Hernando Cortes
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Francisco Pizzaro
Led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535; by 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to the Spanish
Ordinances of Discovery
An order by the Spanish king in the 1570s that banned the most brutal military conquests. This established American presence in the new world through colonization
Don Juan de Onate
He was a Spanish conquistador who explored the areas of Mexico and what is now Texas and New Mexico in 1598. He was infamous for his cruelty to the Pueblo Indians. In the Battle of Acoma in 1599 he severed one foot of each Pueblo survivor.
Subjugation
(N.) the act of conquering; enslavement
Extermination
This mass killing becomes legally known as genocide. It is called ___________ because the killers do not view it as murder since they view the victims as sub-human.
matrilineal
relating to a social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the mother
Hernando de Soto
Spanish explorer who sailed around Florida in 1539 and then traveled along the southeast coast as far as the Mississippi River. Led to extensive exploration of that river and claimed much land for Spain.
Pueblo Revolt, 1680
The first time the Indians successfully revolted against the Spanish, Led by Pope, the Pueblo successfully drove the Spanish out of their territory
St. Augustine, FL
Spanish erected fortress; erected 1565; oldest continually inhabited European settlement in the modern USA
John Cabot
Italian, while working as for the English and a Northwest Passage to China. "discovered" Newfoundland and claimed most of Canada for England .
Mercantilism
According to this doctrine, the colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country; they should add to its wealth, prosperity, and self-sufficiency - achieved by a favorable balance of trade. Many Americans felt "held back" by this policy.
Spearatists
The Separatists, English Protestants (The Church of England) who occupied the extreme wing of Puritanism. The Separatists were severely critical of the Church of England and wanted total reform or to separate from it. Their chief complaint was that too many elements of the Roman Catholic Church had been retained after the English reformation.
Coureurs de dois
Runners of the woods; were independent entrepreneurial French-Canadian woodsmen who traveled in New France and the interior of North America. They hunted and trapped furs and traded and lived among the natives. Claimed land for France.
Enclosure Movement
English farmers fenced off common lands into individual holdings, largely for the benefit of the already wealthy landholders. This practice had significant results by the 1800s. Many farmers were forced into giving up farming and moving to the city for work in the factories.
The Reformation
1517- started when Monk Martin Luther's criticisms of Roman Catholic Church, the 95 Thesis, were nailed on the door of the Catholic Catholic in Wittenburg. Led to establish of a new christian sect called Protestantism. Began in England in 1534 when King Henry broke with Catholic Church. Church of England became state church of England.
English Reformation
A series of events in 16th-century (1534) England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. Based on Henry VIII's desire for an annulment of his marriage, the English Reformation was at the outset more of a political affair than a theological dispute.
Henry Hudson
An English explorer who explored for the Dutch. Looking for a Northwest Passage from Atlantic to the Pacific. He claimed the Hudson River around present day New York and called it New Netherlands. Hudson Bay named for him.
Chartered Companies
Groups of private investors who paid an annual fee to France and England in exchange for a monopoly over trade to the West Indies colonies.
Encomienda
A system of forced labor. A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the native Americans.
New Amsterdam
A Dutch colony on the island of Manhattan. Part of the Dutch fur trade. Had a diverse population with weak leadership. James, Duke of York, seized the territory because Charles II of England granted him the land. He named the land New York.
Spanish Armada
"Invincible" group of ships sent by King Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588 because England had abandoned Catholic Church. Armada was defeated by smaller, more maneuverable English "sea dogs" in the Channel; Seen by the English as a "divine intervention" by the English, marked the beginning of English naval dominance and fall of Spanish dominance.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
in 1583 sailed to North America in search of a Northwest Passage (a sea route to Asia through North America). He founded an English settlement in Newfoundland.
Roanoke
1584-1587 Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.
Jamestown
The first permanent English settlement in the New World; founded in 1607 and financed by the Virginia Company, a joint-stock company.
Mestizos
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory, People of mixed European and Indian ancestry in Mesoamerica and South America; particularly prevalent in areas colonized by Spain.
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Seigneuries
Large French estates. Such seigneuries along the bank of the St. Lawrence river helped to create the boundary line of French settlement before the Seven Years' War.
London Company
Also known as the Charter of the Virginia Company of London, it was an English joint stock company that was sent by James I to colonize the New World. After the Plymouth colony was abandoned, the charter was expanded to include everything along the coast of what is now Virginia, up into Canada. In 1607, members established Jamestown, which was the first permanent settlement in America (Political). They worked to convert the natives to Anglicanism. (Religious, Social)
John Smith
1580-1631 An English colonist who came to America in 1608 and helped to create the Jamestown Colony. He made an agreement with the Powhatan Indians. He encouraged settlers to work harder and build better housing. No work = no food Hard work = more food.
Headright System
A method used by the Virginia company in order to encourage more settlers to come to America by giving any man who could pay his way to the new world 50 acres and if he paid the way for another he would recieve 50 acres and the person that he paid for would be the payers indentured servant for up to 7 years and then the indentured servant would recieve a portion of his ex-debtors land.
Calverts
Aristocratic family that established Maryland to be a safe-haven for Catholics. Over the years most immigrants were Protestant.
Proprietary Rule
Where the colony was owned by a group of people and ruled by them, although paying a tribute to the king.
Religious Toleration
Acceptance of the right of people to have differing religious belief than your own.
Sir William Berkley
Berkley was the autocratic royal governor of Virgina. He adopted policies that favored the large planters and used dictatorial powers to govern on their behalf. He antagonized backwoods farmers on Virginia's western frontier because he failed to protect their settlements from Indian attacks. Led to Bacon's rebellion.
Bacon's Rebellion
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness
Mayflower Compact
1620- A contract made among the male voyagers on the Mayflower in which they agreed that they would form a simple government where majority ruled.
William Bradford
Chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in yearly elections.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Colony established in New England area with more than 1000 Puritans under John Winthrop sailed here in 1630. Took charter with them. Theocracy; city set on a hill
John Winthrop
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
Theocracy
A government controlled by religious leaders
Roger Williams
A dissenter, Roger Williams clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state and how the leaders dealt with the natives. After being banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he traveled south, where he founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants and purchased lands from the natives.
Anne Hutchinson
An early member of the Mass. Bay Colony. Taught Bible Studies in her home without the consent of Colony leaders. She taught that through the Holy Spirit all people could understand scripture and therefore the religious leaders were unnecessary. Convicted of Antinomian heresy. Banished to Rhode Island with her family. Later moved to New York where she and all but one member of her family were killed in an Indian raid.