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Units of DNA made up of phosphate group, deoxyribose, and nitrogen base.

Base Pairing

Principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine.


Protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled.


Process of duplicating DNA.


The process of creating mRNA by copying part of the DNA.


Three consecutive nucleotides that specify a single amino acid on mRNA.


Decoding of an mRNA message into a protein.


The matching three nucleuotides to the codon that specify for a specific amino acid and are found on tRNA.

Messenger RNA

RNA molecule that serves as a copy


Changes in DNA sequence (genetic material).


Production of diploid somatic cells.


The division of the cytoplasm during mitosis and meiosis.


Term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite sex-parent.


Cell that contains full number of chromosomes.


Cell that contains half the number of chromosomes (gametes).


The production of haploid gametes.

Crossing Over

Process of homologous chromosomes exchanging a portion of their genetic material.

Double Helix

Shape of DNA.


Structure formed before cell division made of DNA.

Hydrogen Bonds

The force of attraction that holds base pairs together in DNA.


Segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein.

Asexual Reproduction

A reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent.

Sexual Reproduction

A reproductive process that involves two parents and produces genetically different offspring.


An agent that causes a change to a DNA sequence (radiation, mutagenic chemicals, viral infection).

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