Ch.4 socialization and the life course

socialization (80)
the process in which people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture; occurs thru human interaction that begin in infancy and continue thru retirement

socialization help us to discover how to behave "properly" and what to expect from others if we follow or challenge society's norms and valeus; provide for transmission of a culture from one generation to the next; shapes self-image
significant other (84)
individuals who are most important in development of the self (eg. parents, friends, co-workers, teachers often among those who play major role in shaping a person's self)
generalized other (84)
the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his or her behavior
gender roles (88)
expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females
Goffman's dramaturgical approach (85)
a view of social interaction in which people are seen as theatrical performers (eg. a clerk may try to appear busier than he or she actually is if a supervisor happens to be watching)
face-work (85)
the efforts people make to maintain the proper image of self and avoid public embarrassment (eg. In response to a rejection a person may engage in face-work by saying "there really isn't an interesting person in this entire crowd")
impression management (85)
individual learns to slant the presentation of self to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences
Goffman makes so many explicit parallels to theater, theory called dramaturgical approach

the altering of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences
rites of passage (92)
ritual making the dramatizing and validating changes in a person's status; ceremonies mark stages of development (ie ceremony, baptism, getting bachelor degree, separate residence from parents)
anticipatory socialization (93)
processes of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships (eg. a high school student who, upon hearing he had been accepted to a university, visiting campus and begin wearing college type cloths)
resocialization (93)
the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life (eg. move to the US from my own country, conversion of religion from catholic to Christiane)
total institutions (93)
an institution that regulates all aspects of a persons life under a single authority, such as a prison, military etc.
degradation ceremony (94)
people lose their individuality within total institutions; for example person entering prison may experience the humiliation

ritual where individual becomes secondary and rather invisible in an overbearing social environment
role-taking (84)
the process of mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint
looking-glass self (83)
Cooley's term for the self image that we develop from the way others treat us

self is product of our social interactions
how could develop negative self-image?
the self result from an individual's imagination of how others view him or her, as a result, we can develop self-identies based on incorrect perceptions of how others see us and this misperception converted into negative self-image
Mead-stages of self
1)Preparatory stage: children imitate people around them
Symbols: gestures, objects and words that form the basis of human communication
2)Play stage: children develop skill in communicating through symbols and role taking occurs
Role taking: process of mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint(eg. a young child will gradually learn when it is best to ask a parent for favors)
3)Game stage: children of about 8 or 9 consider several actual tasks and relationships simultaneously
***Generalized others: attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that child takes into account
What Goffman's approach to self?
self developed thru the impression we convey to others and to groups
Freud's approach to self differ from those two?
Suggested self has components that work in opposition to each other: natural impulsive instincts in constant conflict with societal constraints

By interacting with others, we learn expectations of society and select most appropriate behavior for our culture
agent of socialization
Family is the most impt in US, esp for children

others: school, the peer group, mass media, workplace, religion and state