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34 terms

Chapter 6 : Theories of Cognitive Development

STUDY
PLAY
accommodation
changing existing knowledge based on the new knowledge
animism
a phenomenon in which they attribute and lifelike properties to inanimate objects
assimilation
taking info that is compatible with what one already knows
automatic processes
cognitive activities that require virtually no effort
central executive
component of the info-processing system that coordinates activities of the system
centration
narrowly focused thinking characterisitc of Piaget's pre-operational stage
concrete operational stage
Piaget's third stage from 7-11 yrs in which children first use mental operations to solve problems
constructivism
children are active participants in their own development
core-knowledge theories
view that infants are born with rudimentary knowledge of the world that is elaborated based on children's experiences
deductive reasoning
drawing conclusions from facts
egocentrism
difficulty in seeing the world from another person's point of view (Piaget's preoperational stage)
equilibration
the process by which children reorganize their schemes and in the process, move to the next developmental stage
essentialism
the belief that all living things have an underlying essence that can't be seen but that gives a living thing its idenity
executive functioning
a mechanism of growth that includes inhibitory processes, planning, and cognitive flexibility
formal operational stage
Piaget's 4th stage 11+ in which children can apply mental operations abstractly
guided participation
structured interactions between a child and another more knowledgeable person
information-processing theory
a view that human cognition consists of mental hardware and mental software
inhibitory processes
processes that prevent task-irrelevant info from entering working memory
inner speech
thought
intersubjectivity
shared understanding among people who are participating in an activity together
long-term memory
permanent memory storehouse
mental operations
cognitive actions that can be performed on objects and ideas
naive psychology
our informal beliefs about other people and their behavior
object permanence
UNDERSTANDING, AQUIRED IN INFANCY, THAT OBJECTS EXIST INDEPENDENTLY OF ONESELF
preoperational stage
Piaget's 2nd stage from 2-7 yrs, children use symbols to represent objects and events
private speech
comments that are not intended for others but that can help children regulate their own behavior
scaffolding
a teaching style in which adults adjust the amount of assistance that they offer
sensorimotor stage
Piaget's 1st stage, from birth to 2 years, infants progress from respond reflexively to using symbols
sensory memory
a type of memory in which info is held in raw for about 30 seconds
sociocultural perspective
children's cognitive development can only be understood by considering the cultural contexts in which children develop
teleological explanation
belief that living things and parts of living things exist for a purpose
theory of mind
an intuitive understanding of the connections among thoughts, beliefs, intentions, and behavior
working memory
a type of memory in which a small number of items can be stored briefly
zone of proximal development
difference between what children can do with assistance and what they can do alone