Terms in this set (328)
a mature cell that does not have a nucleus
lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil and neutrophil
mature cells that have a nucleus
A connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that protects the ends of bones and keeps them from rubbing together.
An organ in the abdominal cavity with two roles. The first is an exocrine role: to produce digestive enzymes and bicarbonate, which are delivered to the small intestine via the pancreatic duct. The second is an endocrine role: to secrete insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream to help regulate blood glucose levels.
A flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering.
A large solid organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm; it produces bile, stores glucose for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses.
An organ that is part of the lymphatic system; it produces lymphocytes, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells.
A 9-year-old girl was struck by a car while she was crossing the street and is displaying signs of shock. During your assessment, you note a large contusion over the left upper quadrant of her abdomen. Which of the following organs has most likely been injured
Which of the following anatomical regions of abdomen lies just distal to the sternum?
thoracic and abdominal
Which of the following cavities are separated by the diaphragm
bending toward the body
Movement away from the body
Movement toward the midline of the body
As applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm up. As applied to the foot, it is outward roll of the foot during normal motion
Lying face down
Lying on the back
Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
What is the most abundant protein in the body?
What protein is intimately involved in the formation of scar tissue in wound healing?
a tough, yet flexible, fibrous protein material found in the skin and in the bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments
The skin gets its strength, form & flexibility from?
A layer of connective tissue underneath the epidermis of the skin. The dermis contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves, sensory receptors, and glands.
Radius is bent but not displaced and skin is intact
displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair
bone breaks through the skin
Complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angles to the long axis of the bone.
Inner and larger bone of the forearm, attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger.
Point at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell
A neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
A substance that aids the transmission of nerve impulses?
What carries blood from the heart to the lungs?
carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
inferior vena cava
A vein that is the largest vein in the human body and returns blood to the right atrium of the heart from bodily parts below the diaphragm.
One of several vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
The largest artery in the body; it conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the tissues
superior vena cava
Transports venous blood from the upper portion of the body to the heart
pacemaker of the heart
located in the posterior wall of the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava
-a node in the right atrium that receives impulses from the brain to contract the atrial muscles
aka pacemaker region, during each cardiac cycle, heart gives the signal to contract
Carries more CO2 and less oxygen than inhaled air
During gas exchange, if oxygen moves into the blood, where does carbon dioxide move into?
Tiny sacs, with walls only a single cell layer thick found at the end of the respiratory bronchiole tree.
The first (approximately 5%) of the small intestinte.
Absorbs water and forms feces
Transports the waste to the anus
The organ that removes bilirubin from the blood, manufactures plasma proteins and is involved with the production of prothrombin and fibrinogen
A large gland that secretes digestive enzymes which pass through the intestine and break-down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. It also secretes insulin
Process of moving proteins to the outside of a cell.
An organ that is part of the lymphatic system; it produces lymphocytes, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells. contains about 1 pint of blood.
Contractions of smooth muscles that provide the force that moves food through the esophagus toward the stomach
Involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system.
Saliva contains an enzyme that acts upon
Chains of amino acids
gonococcal culture is taken from where
A ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of filtration in the vertebrate kidney.
What is the filtering unit of the kidney?
Kidney filtration occurs in a cluster of capillaries called what?
loop of henle
section of the nephron tubule that is responsible for conserving water and minimizing the volume of the filtrate
The cavity within the kidney that collects urine is the
A cone-shaped collecting area that connects the ureter and the kidney.
stem portion of the nephron
microscopic tubes in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration
inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis
urine flow order
KIDNEY, URETER, BLADDER, URETHRA, URETHRAL MEATUS
Male organ that produces sperm and testosterone
Mucus producing glands located on each side if the vaginal opening
located just below the prostrate gland; during sexual arousa, these glands secrete a fluid known as pre-ejaculate
A small body of endocrine tissue that develops from an ovarian follicle after ovulation; secretes progesterone and estrogen during pregnancy.
mineral substances, such as sodium, calcium and potassium, that are normally found in the blood,
the major endocrine gland. A pea-sized body attached to the base of the brain, the pituitary is important in controlling growth and development and the functioning of the other endocrine glands.
vitamin B12 deficient
a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy
ability to breathe only in an upright position
easy or normal breathing
Abnormal development of breast tissue in males
prefix meaning outer
inability to swallow
cover the lungs and line the chest wall
where is a SubQ injection given?
between dermis and muscle
suture to repair the vagina
surgical fixation of the uterus
peformed in the gastrointestinal body system
incision of the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening
To cut into the tube from the kidney to the bladder
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the joint space
instrument used for visual examination of the bladder
The fruity smell of urine may indicate the pathological condition of what?
A condition in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin, the hormone required for the metabolism of sugar
3Ps (Polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria)
Which of the following is a malignant tumor of the eye that is known to be hereditary?
grow in pairs, are spherical-shaped, and cause pneumonia
The process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.
most common vein for venipuncture
Which of the following words means after a meal?
Yellow, Light Blue, Red, Green, Lavender/Pink, Gray, Royal Blue
what is the order of blood draw
normal specific gravity
4.5 - 8.0
Posture assumed by patient when supine with head of bed at 90 degrees
When a patient is lying in bed in a supine position with the head of the bed at approximately 30 degrees.
F to C
electric currents from heart detected by electrodes on skin
The grounding lead for an EKG
the rhythm strip
entire cardiac cycle can be called the complex
What interval is measured from the beginning of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex?
Measured from the end of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex. Represents depolarization of AV node and its delay and depolarization of the Bundle of His and the Bundle Branches.
SLows conduction to allow the atria to finish getting blood into the ventricles
When the Ventricles remain depolarized (or contracted), what is shown on the EKG tracing?
The line from the end of the QRS complex to the beginning of the T wave
a personal check that has been stamped and signed by a bank officer as a guarantee that your account has the funds to cover the check
this is a check issued against bank funds. it is guaranteed funds from your own checking account. the check will not bounce, because the money is set withdrawn from the account and waiting to be paid by the bank
Purchased with cash for the cash value typed on the check
truth in lending act
Also called Consumer Credit Protection Act of 1967
Law requiring disclosures of finance charges and late fees for payment plans
An act which requires lenders to inform borrowers of all direct, indirect and true costs of credit.
A subclassification of ICD-9-CM coding used to identify health care encounters that occur for reasons other than illness or injury and to identify patients whose injury or illness is influenced by special circumstances or problems
A supplementary classification of ICD-9-CM codes for external causes of injury and poisoning is _____.
Found in the ICD-9-CM and used primarily with cancer registries. These codes further identify behavior and the cell type of a neoplasm.
Healthcare common procedural coding system.
Contains codes for products, supplies and certain services not included in the CPT manual. These codes are maintained by the Centers for Medicine and Medicaid Services. (CMS
a report that lists unpaid customer invoices and unused credit memos by date ranges. The aging report is the primary tool used by collections personnel to determine which invoices are overdue for payment
Board with pegs along the left side for the "write it once system"
Most commonly used manual medical accounts receivable system
A system of layered forms that allows all transactions to be completed at one time; composed of day sheet, patient ledger, charge slips, receipts, and day sheet-sized board with pegs to hold forms in place
statue of limitations
Period of time which a patient has to file a lawsuit
liabilities + owners equity
total practice management system
total practice management system - allows patients to schedule appts., send messages to the care team, view lab results, request RX refills and view a summary of their medical information
What is money owed by the medical practice for items such as rent, utilities, and payroll known as?
Money an organization's customers owe the organization.
The process of analyzing each cost element that are composed within the price, such as materials, overhead, etc.
Federal Insurance Contributions Act
An abbreviation for the Federal Insurance Contributions Act which requires two deductions from pay for Social Security and Medicare taxes.
Short for Federal Insurance Contributions Act, the name given on the paycheck stub for Social Security and Medicare taxes. The employee pays some of the FICA tax, and and the employer pays some of this tax for each employee. Social Security pays benifits for older people, people with disabilaties, and minor children and surviving spouses of deceased workers. Medicare pays for hospital insurance for those over 65.
second class mail
formula for dose calculation
max dose of intradermal injection
max dose of intramuscular injection in deltoid
max dose of intramuscular injection of dorsogluteal and ventrogluteal
max dose of intramuscular injection for vests lateralis in child
max dose of intramuscular injection for Vastus Lateralis lateralis in adult
subcutaneous injection max dose
subq injection angel of injection
insulin injection is given how
SubQ at 90degree angle
IM injection angel of injection
most immunizations are given before what age
most pediatric injections are given where
in the vastus lateralis
vastus lateralis injection
level of consciousness
AVPU (awake and alert, responds to voice, responds to pain, unresponsive or unconscious
pupils equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation
a large, irregular area of purplish discoloration due to bleeding under the skin; a bruise
first degree burn
Superficial burns through only the epidermis.
second degree burn
What type of burn has blistering, destruction of epidermis and slight damage to dermis, and can heal without intervention?
third degree burn
a burn involving all layers of the skin; characterized by the destruction of the epidermis and dermis, with damage or destruction of subcutaneous tissue
A full-thickness burns that involve the epidermis, dermis, and varying levels of the subcutaneous and underlying structures.
abnormally low body temperature, <95degrees
An injury to a joint capsule in which the ligaments holding bones together are stretched too far and tear.
An injury to a joint, similar to sprain, except that a muscle that crosses the affected joint is injured.
A condition resulting from damaging a muscle or tendon
exercises in which body parts do not move
______ combine movement of the joints with contraction of the muscles. try lifting free weights or doing calisthenics, such as push ups, pull ups, and sit ups. these exercises build flexibility as well as strength(more of a whole body workout)
dislocation or displacement of a bone from its joint
partial dislocation of a joint
the area on the anterior surface of the arm situated in front of the cubitus, or elbow; anterior area where the arm bends when flexing at the elbow
The vein of choice because is it large and does not tend to move when the needle is inserted.
type 1 diabetes
Diabetes of a form that usually develops during childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a severe deficiency of insulin, leading to high blood glucose levels.
type 2 diabetes
form of diabetes mellitus that is gradual in onset and results from the body's deficiency in producing enough insulin or resistance to the action of insulin by the body's cells
gestational diabetes screening
performed at 28wks
Ethylenediaminetetraacete. A calcium chelating (binding) agent that is used as an anticoagulant for laboratory blood.
Purple/Lavender or white top
Light blue top - Sodium Cirate
blood culture tubes
1st blood draw
Order of blood draw
Yellow, Light Blue, Red, Green, Lavender/Pink, Gray, Royal Blue.
Normal specific gravity of urine
An instrument consisting of a tube or speculum equipped with a light, used to examine the rectum.
Speculum used to examine anus & lower rectum
the endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon
Released in hypothalamus, stimulates release of TSH (thyroid secreting hormone) in anterior pituitary, which stimulates release of thyroxine.
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone; stimulates adrenal cortex to syntesize and secrete glucocorticoids; regulated by releasing hormone corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)
Melanocyte-stimulation hormone - Darkens skin pigmentation
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that tarets the mammary glands stimulating them to produce breastmilk.
A tropic hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that targets the gonads. In females, FSH stimulates the ovaries to develop follicles (oogenesis) and secrete estrogen; in males, FSH stimulates spermatogenesis.
Luteinizing hormone, ovulation and egg release, maturation of egg, release of testosterone in males.
A hormone produced in the hypothalamus that stimulates contractions during labor
concentrates urine and conserves wear in the body
stimulates smooth muscles of blood vessels to constrict
glands in the neck that produce parathyroid hormone which helps maintain a calcium level in the blood
located just above the kidneys; produces hormone that regulates blood sugar level
outer section of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones
flight or fight hormone
exocrine and endocrine
The two function of the pancreas
An immune organ located near the heart. The thymus is the site of T cell maturation and is larger in children and adolescents. Secretes thymopoietins & thymosins. These along with THF & TF are involved with normal T cell (lymphocytes) development.
A brain structure located near the thalamus that secretes melatonin.
Decreased metabolic rate, lethargy, weight gain (despite decreased appetite), constipation, decreased HR, cold intolerance, weakness, anorexia, slow cerebration (thinking), sleepy, menorrhagia (heavy/frequent menstruation)
caused by extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion; also known as adult hypothyroidism
An abnormal condition characterized by a marked outward protrusion of the eyeballs.
anxiety, restless, tremors, palpitations, perspiration, heat intolerance, weight loss with normal appetite, and hyperdefecation
Behind the peritoneum of the abdominal cavity
Tiny sac that is in the first step of making urine
top part of the nephron that encloses the glomerulus
Regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium salts by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed and excreting the rest as urine thereby eliminating wastes from the body, regulating blood volume and BP, controls levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulates blood pH.
filtration, reabsorption, secretion
The tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
Urinary Bladder can hold how much urine
A person feels the urge to void at
The tube that leads from the bladder to the outside of the body
Approx length of a womans urethra
Approx length of males urethra
Opening at end of urethra
Sex cell; an egg or sperm cell
A fertilized egg, produced by the joining of a sperm and an egg
chromosome from which parent determines the sex of a child
failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum
A long, coiled duct on the outside of the testis in which sperm mature.
Long, narrow tube carrying sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct
sac of clear fluid in the scrotum
Glands that produce the egg cells and hormones
a hormone-secreting structure that develops in an ovary after an ovum has been discharged but degenerates after a few days unless pregnancy has begun.
mature egg cell
occurs when a sperm penetrates and fertilizes the descending ovum. takes place in the outer third of the fallopian tube
3 parts of the uterus
fundus, body, and cervix
Opening between uterus and vagina
The widest and most superior portion of the uterus. At the lateral borders are the cornua, where the fallopian tubes enter the uterine cavity.
in females, the area between the anus and the vagina
A thin membrane that stretches across the opening of the vagina
place where the inner lips come together behind the vaginal opening
extends from the bottom of the vaginal opening to the anus; area that is incised during episiotomy
A structure in the pregnant uterus for nourishing a viviparous fetus with the mother's blood supply; formed from the uterine lining and embryonic membranes.
implantation of the placenta over the cervical opening or in the lower region of the uterus
thinning of the cervix
The sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
Central nervous system; brain and spinal cord
All parts of the nervous system, excluding the brain and spinal cord, that relay information between the CNS and other parts of body
Autonomic nervous system
A subdivision of the peripheral nervous system. Controls involuntary activity of visceral muscles and internal organs and glands.
Cells that carry information in the body
travel across a neuron from dendrites to the cell body and then to the axon through an action called a synapse
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
synaptic gap or synaptic space; tiny gap between the terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron (almost never touch); location of the transfer of an impulse from one neuron to the next
Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons/cleft
A clump of gray matter (unmyelinated neuron cell bodies) found in the peripheral nervous system.
how many pairs of cranial nerves are in the PNS?
how many pairs of spinal nerves are in the PNS?
sympathetic division of the ANS
accelerates activity of smooth muscles, begins at the base of the brain and runs down both sides of the spinal column
parasympathetic division of the ANS
A branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal body functions; it calms the body ever conserves energy.
The organs of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) are covered by 3 connective tissue layers
located between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane in the skull and vertebral column
a space in the meninges beneath the arachnoid membrane and above the pia mater that contains the cerebrospinal fluid
Deep groove running from the front to the back of the brain, separating the two different hemispheres
Area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body
Largest part of the brain; coordinates thought, reasoning, movement, and memory, includes the cerebral cortex and the white matter beneath it.
Control of finely coordinated movements. Coordination center, voluntary movement and balance. "Small brain."
The portion of theforebrain that includes the thalamus and hypothalamus.
Largest and longest lobe in each hemisphere. Located in the upper forward half. Association areas are involved with planning, problem-solving, personality, decision making, controlling emotions and speech production
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receieves sensory input for touch and body position
Part of the brain that processes auditory and olfactory information. Associated with emotion, language, and memory formation.
the portion of the brain that is continuous with the spinal cord and comprises the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and parts of the hypothalamus, functioning in the control of reflexes and such essential internal mechanisms as respiration and heartbeat.
Part of the brainstem that controls vital life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion.
a space in the meninges beneath the arachnoid membrane and above the pia mater that contains the cerebrospinal fluid
MS is treated with what
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and steroids
disorder of 5th cranial nerve
disorder of the 7th cranial nerves
White of the eye
The darkly pigmented middle layer of the eyeball, found between teh sclera (outer layer) and the retina (inner layer).
Light sensitive layer of the eye; contains rods and cones
Retinal receptors that detect black, white and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond.
Cone-shaped visual receptor cells; located in retina; works best in bright light; responsible for viewing color; greatest density in the fovea
region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
Clear membrane at the front of the globe covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. Responsible for 60% of the eyes focusing power. Contains 5 layers
defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye, causes blurred vision
anterior chamber of the eye
between the cornea and iris
In front of the iris, holds aqueous humor (clear salty fluid)
maintains curvature of the cornea and assists in refraction
posterior chamber of the eye
portion of anterior segment located between the iris and the lens, fluid helps maintain intraocular pressure.
filled with vitreous humor(jelly like fluid)
maintains the shape of the eyeball
Nearsightedness, image focuses in front of the retina
farsightedness, images focus behind the retina
impaired vision as a result of aging
ball and socket joint
hip and shoulder joints
Attach muscle to bone
fluid-filled sac (synovial fluid) that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another
Connect bone to bone
point of contact between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle cell
Which of the following will increase during strenuous muscular activity
The protein in epidermal cells that makes the skin relatively waterproof is
nerve impulse is carried across a synapse by a
the most important digestive enzyme in gastric juice
growth hormone is produced where
the pituitary gland
The outermost layer of the cerebral hemisphere which is composed of gray matter. Cortices are asymmetrical. Both hemispheres are able to analyze sensory data, perform memory functions, learn new information, form thoughts and make decisions.
water soluble vitamin
vitamins B and C
False and malicious (mean) writings ("libel") or speech ("slander") about a living person. Not protected speech under 1st Amendment but check out NY Times v. Sullivan (very difficult for "public figures" to prove defamation)
A payment method for health care services in which the physician, hospital, or other health care provider is paid a contracted rate for each member assigned, referred to as a "per-member-per-month" rate, regardless of the number or nature of services provided
An organization that contracts with the government to handle and mediate insurance claims from the medical facilities, home health agencies, or providers of medical services or supplies.
Digestion that breaks food into tiny pieces is
The hormone responsible for ovulation is
Approximately 60% of the plasma proteins are formed by
where is chyme produced?
in the stomach
hormone secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels)
Digestive hormone that stimulates sustained secretion of gastric juice from the stomach
Where do T cells mature?
The cavity within the kidney that collects urine is the
a medical assistant who performs a procedure ordered by the physician employer is protected under what principle?
Let the master answer
The gray matter on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres is called the
The ventral cavity refers to the
front/anterior body cavities
The function of insulin is to
Assist glucose into cells
What is the first portion of the small intestinal
The purpose of the Good Samaritan Act is to protect healthcare providers rendering First Aid from
protect health care workers from liability when rendering emergency care
res ispa loquitur
A doctrine under which negligence may be inferred simply because an event occurred, if it is the type of event that would not occur in the absence of negligence. Literally, the term means "the facts speak for themselves."
"the thing has been decided"
Law that forbids suing a subsequent time for the same damages once a case has already been resolved
the four elements of negligence
Duty, duty of care, derelict= breach of duty of care, direct cause, damage
non-duplication of benefits
Coordination of benefits is also known as
A payment method used by many managed care organizations in which a fixed amount of money is reimbursed to the provider for patients enrolled during a specific period of time, no matter what services are received or how many visits are made.
A specific sum of money paid by the insured to the insurance company in exchange for financial protection against loss.
Resource-based relative value scale (RBRVS)
a scale used by Medicare to determine the value of practitioner services.
A written authorization by the patient giving the insurance company the right to pay the physician directly for billed services is known as the
Assignment of benfits
Codes are required when reporting services and procedures provided to medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries, example is J0540
Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System
Codes used to describe circumstances or condition that could influence patient care.
Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs
A range of usual fees in the same community is the
Health maintenance organization plan
an organization that provides comprehensive medical care to subscribers for a fixed fee
traditional insurance: insured pay premiums and 100% of medical bills until deductible is met.
Reimbursement plan where the insurance reimburses the covered party regardless of the where or with whom the covered party seeks health care services from
An employer is required to make payments for which one of the following
The Federal Unemployment Tax Act ( FUTA)
When a bankruptcy notice is received in the office it is beneficial to
submit a form to the court trustee
a continuous record of the usual charges submitted for specific services by each physician, usually a year's worth of compiled and averaged fees
biological sterilization indicator
What are the only means of ensuring sterility following sterilization?
This checks the presence of spores in the autoclave
A set payment of reimbursement developed by a third party payer to be paid for specific healthcare services and procedures based on CPT/HCPCS codes.
A medical tool that is used for grasping or holding things
diabetes mellitus Type I (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus)
Ketonuria (ketones excreted in the urine), glycosuria (glucose excreted in the urine), hyperglycemia (elevated blood glucose levels), polyuria (excessive urination) and weight loss are all symptoms of
Type II diabetes
High blood sugar levels due to lack of insulin production in the pancreas. A noninsulin dependent disease known as adult onset diabetes.
The correct site for an adult IM injection is the
What is the largest muscle in the body?
The correct site for an infant IM injection is the
Low blood sugar
what lowers blood glucose levels
A urine pregnancy test checks for the presence of
Which is a highly specific host defense mechanism?
second degree burn appears how?
red, edematous, wet, shiny or blistered
How many leads does a basic EKG have
The electrode used as a ground in an EKG
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