47 terms

European Changes

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Charlemagne
King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of leterature and learning
Fief
a piece of land held under the feudal system
Vassal
a person holding a fief
Serf
(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
Thomas Aquinas
(Roman Catholic Church) Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology
Magna Carta
This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
Estates Generals
an assembly of reps from all 3 of the estates.
Great Schisim
the breach between the Eastern and Western churches, usually dated from 1054
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. (p. 413)
Renaissance
the revival of learning and culture
Michelangelo
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Leonardo Da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
The Divine Comedy
Dante's epic poem; Inferno Purgatorio, and Paradiso; often considered the greatest literary work composed in the Italian language and a masterpiece of world literature.
Cosmo De Medici
wealthiest European of his time; wanted control of government; influenced members of the council; ruled as dictator behind the scenes (he told people what to do)
Donatello
Florentine sculptor famous for his lifelike sculptures (1386-1466)
Raphael
Italian painter whose many paintings exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance (1483-1520)
Indulgence
the remission by the pope of the temporal punishment in purgatory that is still due for sins even after absolution
Usury
the act of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest
95 Thesis
Martin Luther nailed the 95 reasons that the catholic church was corrupt on the front door of the church, first action made against the church
Lutheran Church
the Protestant denomination adhering to the views of Martin Luther
Anglican Church
the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs)
Inqusition
Roman Catholic tribunal investigation & prosecuting charges of heresy- especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
Guttenberg
Published the first moveable type Bible called, Guttenbergs Bible. This encouraged development of scholarly research and the desire to attain knowledge
Henry VIII
son of Henry VIII and King of England from 1509 to 1547
Ignatious
st.__ of Antioch first applied the term "catholic" to the Church
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
John Knox
Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
Conquistador
an adventurer (especially one who led the Spanish conquest of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century)
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of goods and ideas between Native Americans and Europeans
Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Da Gamma
Portuguese navigator who led an expedition around the Cape of Good Hope in 1497
Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Cortez
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Pizarro
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
Magellan
Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain
Drake
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596)
Cartier
French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)
Dias
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia) (1450-1500)
Vespucci
Florentine navigator who explored the coast of South America
NW Passage
Water shortcut through N. America to Asia
Champlain
French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec (1567-1635)
Jamestown
a former village on the James River in Virginia north of Norfolk
De Soto
A Spanish conquistador who traveled through what is now Georgia looking for gold and riches. he was the first European to reach the Mississippi River in 1540.