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CCNM Bot101 Final Exam Practice Qs
Terms in this set (55)
What is the best type of preparation to extract mucilage, phenolics, and tannins?
Cold water infusions
What is the best type of preparation to use with aerial parts of plants (flowers, berries, and leaves)?
Hot water infusions
What is the best type of preparation for woody parts and NOT good for non-polar compounds?
Steam distillation can be used to extract what?
What is the best type of preparation to extract non-polar compounds?
What is a difference between using water versus glycerol as an extraction method?
Water only extracts polar molecules while glycerol extracts polar molecules and SOMEWHAT extracts non-polar molecules
What would you use to extract glycosides?
What would you use to extract mucilage, gums, and gels?
Cold water infusion
What would you use to extract carbohydrates like glucose?
Water or alcohol
How could you increase the solubility of alkaloids in polar solvents?
Add vinegar to protonate the N constituent in alkaloids, leading to increased solubility
How would you extract flavonoids like quercetin?
Alcohol or water + glycosides
-Water decoctions work well
How would you extract phenolics or polyphenols like curcumin?
Alcohol (because 3:1 carbon to oxygen)
How would you extract sesquiterpene lactones like helenalin?
Alcohol or oil
How would you extract tetraterpenes like lycopene?
Oils/fats because it contains no oxygen
Is glycerol or ethanol the more expensive solvent?
Glycerol is more expensive than ethanol and is often inferior.
Describe the following external applications
Poultice - Applying directly to wound
Fomentation - Dipping cloth in tincture
Liniment - Rubbing essential oil-rich liquid
Salve/Unguent - Ointment
This type of external application can be used with internally toxic herbs like comfrey and arnica
This type of external application can be used to draw out fluid thanks to substances like mucilage
What is a suppository?
Solid dosage form inserted into rectum, vagina, or urethra
Give an easy way to distinguish between an ointment/salve versus a cream/lotion.
A cream/lotion will contain water
What preparation would you use for a leg ulcer?
What preparation would you use for colitis (colon inflammation) or chronic constipation?
What preparation would you use for tonsillitis, or gingivitis?
What preparation would you use for heartburn, colds & flus, or chest congestion?
How many mL are a a teaspoon? How about a tablespoon?
Teaspoon = 4-5 mL
Tablespoon = 15 mL
Solvents with a higher percentage of alcohol yield smaller or larger drops in comparison to water?
Higher alcohol percentage means small drops
This can induce Phase 1 detoxification
St. John's Wort
This group can inhibit Phase 1 detoxification
Phase 2 detoxification can be induced by these
How do side effects come about?
Side effects result from the substance binding either too strongly to a receptor or binding to undesired targets
What are common examples of herbs with a broad therapeutic index?
True or false? St. Jonh's Wort can slow and reduce the absorption of some medications.
Which herbs are often adulterated?
2. Grapefruit Seed Extract
5. Black Cohosh
The families Anacardiaceae and Asteracea may cause what condition?
Allergic contact dermatitis
What plant compounds can cause allergic contact dermatitis?
Resins and sesquiterpene lactones
BLANK + UV Light = Burns!
Rutaceae and Apiaceae plant families are known to cause this condition
Describe what can occur if you combine a drug with grapefruit juice
Grapefruit juice can increase drug levels and decrease drug metabolism
Which is the correct latin name for black cohosh?
- Actaea racemosa
- Cimicifuga racemosa
Describe the Konzo disease
Konzo is a paralytic disease that results from cassava that has not been properly processed
--> Release of cyanogenic glycosides
What essential oils may cause gynecomastia (enlarged breasts in men)?
Lavender oil and tea tree oil
This phase 2 inducer works by up regulating UDP glucuronyl transferase
What are some herbs that are likely to cause vomiting and nausea?
1. Indian tobacco
What is a caution you should think about when using bitters and carminatives?
Cautions for this action include Esophageal blockage, Crohn's disease blockage, and acute constipation
The use of stimulating laxatives can lead to what two problems?
IBD and dependency
Essential oils are associated with what three main actions?
What herb acts as a serotonin antagonist?
How does marijuana act on cannabinoid receptors?
Marijuana is an agonist for cannabinoid receptors
What are a couple herbs that act as muscarinic receptor antagonists and therefore act as anticholinergics (inhibit parasympathetic NS)?
Deadly nightshade and Jimson weed
What herb inhibits H,K-ATPase that is responsible for making HCl?
Which herb inhibits histidine decarboxylase?
What two actions are responsible for increasing bile production?
Name some osmotic laxatives
1. Magnesium citrate
2. Sorbitol (kiwi, prunes)
3. Vitamin C (over 500 mg)
4. Excess sugar in general
A bad side effects of Greater Celandine may include this.
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