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87 terms

AP2 Test 2

STUDY
PLAY
Function of the blood:
transports hormones
regulates body temperature
fights foreign organisms/substances
buffers the tissues
Parts of the blood:
plasma and formed elements
Plasma
liquid; mostly water; plasma proteins; glucose; hormones; urea; Ne, K, Cl, Fe, Ca (electrolytes); vitamins; enzymes; dissolved gases (O2+CO2+N2)
Formed Elements
solids
erythrocytes (RBC)
leukocytes (WBC)
platelets (clotting)
Leukocytes:
fight infection
Erythrocytes:
transport O2 and CO2
Hemopoiesis
process of blood cell and platelet formation
takes place in the red marrow
Hemocyteoblast
stem cells that form the formed elements
Types of Hemocyteoblast
pro-erythroblast (RBC)
myeloblast (WBC)
lympoblast (WBC)
mono-blast (WBC)
megakaryoblast (platelets)
Composition of Erythrocytes
very small; circular; biconcave disc; anucleate (no nucleus); transport of O2 and CO2; most numerous of the formed elements; hematocrit= packed cells (all cells+platelets); 46.2% average for males & 40.6% for females
Hemoglobin
molecule within RBC's that gives them the ability to transport O2&CO2
Erythropoeisis
process of RBC production
Erythroprotien
substance produced by the kidneys in response to low O2 levels in the blood being supplied to the kidneys
Blood Types
A, B, AB, O
Type A:
type A antigens
type B antibodies
Can donate to A, AB
Can receive from A, O
Type B:
type B antigens
type A antibodies
Can donate to B, AB
Can receive from B, O
Type AB:
type A&B antigens
No antibodies
Can donate to AB
Can receive from A, B, AB, O (universal recipient)
Type O:
No antigens
Type A&B antibodies
Can donate to A, B, AB, O (universal donor)
Can receive from O
Rh+
have Rh antigen, and does not have Rh antibody
Rh-
do not have Rh antigen, and does not have Rh antibody
Anemia
decrease in the number of red blood cells
decrease in hemoglobin concentration
lack of protein/iron/B12 in your diet
Nutritional Anemia
inadequate protein, iron, B12 in diet
Hemorrahagic Anemia
too much bleeding
Pernicious Anemia
can not absorb enough B12
Hemolytic Anemia
distortion in the shape of RBC's (exposer to toxic agents)
Aplastic Anemia
inhibition of red bone marrow
Polycythemia
too many RBC's
Types of Leukocytes
Granulocytes
Eosinophils
Basophils
Granulocytes
have granules
small granules that stain light pink to blue black with wrights
most numerous of all the WBC's
phagocytic
amebuld movement
eat bacteria
Eosinophils
course granules
stain reddish orange with wrights
phagocytic: antigen-antibody complexes
Basophils
large granules that stain reddish-purple to blue black with wrights stain
granules contain histamine therein
Types of Agranulocytes
Monocytes
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
enter tissues and change into macrophages
Lymphocytes
T lymphocytes
-directly attack foreign cells/substances
B lymphocytes
-produce antibodies
Platelets
Small cytoplasmic fragments (hot cells)
No nucleus
Produced by megakeryocytes
Blood Clotting
Extrinsic Pathway ---> Tissue Trauma ---> Prothrombinase ---> Thrombin ---> Fibrinogen ---> Fibrin ---> Blood Trauma ---> Intrinsic Pathway
Fibrin
insoluble, thread-like polymer that forms a network across the wound. Attaches to margins and prevents the loss of the formed elements
Prothrombin/Fibrinogen
normally inactive plasma proteins
Heart-Pericardium:
1. Fibrous Pericardium
2. Serous Pericardium
Fibrous Pericardium
outmost
strong
prevents over stretching of the heart
Serous Pericardium
thin
double layer
Parietal and Visceral
Parietal Pericardium
just under the fibrous pericardium
Visceral Pericardium
on the surface of the heart
Pericardial Cavity
between the parietal and visceral pericardium, filled with pericardial fluid
Heart Wall
1. Epicardium
2. Myocardium
3. Endocardium
Epicardium
visceral epicardium
Myocardium
thickest layer, cardiac muscle
Endocardium
innermost, lines chambers, simple squamous epithelium
Chambers of the Heart
2 upper chambers 2 lower chambers
Atria
upper chambers
Ventricles
lower chambers
Valves of the Heart
Left Atrioventricular Valve
Right Atrioventricular Valve
Pulmonary Semilavar Valve
Aortic Semilavar Valve
Right Atrioventricular Valve (AV)
tricuspid
located between the right atria and right ventricle
chordate tendons and papillary muscles
Left Atrioventricular Valve
bicuspid or mitral valve
choroid tendons and papillary muscles
Pulmonary Semilavar Valve (SL)
tricuspid
prevents back flow of blood
Aortic Semilavar Valve
tricuspid
prevent back flow of blood
Ventricular Systole
contraction
Ventricular Diastole
relaxation
Autorythmic Cells
specialized excitatory and conductive muscle fibers that undergo spontaneous, rhythmical self excitation. (produce cellular activity, rhythmically.)
Nodes
collections of autorythmic cells
Sinoartrial Node (SA)
produces electrical charge 70-80 times a minute. located in the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava.
Atrial Syncytium
all atrial muscle contracts at the same time
Atrioventricular Node (AV)
located in the inter atrial septum detects and holds the discharge of the SA node for about 0.1 sec, then sends it through the AV bundle (Bundle of His)
Right/Left bundle branches
loop back out into the outer ventricular walls
Purkinje Fibers
causing a ventricular syncytium
Two Types of Membrane Junctions
Desmosomes
Gap Junctions
Desmosomes
hold cells together
Gap Junctions
allow speed of electrical activity to occur very fast. (syncytium)
Lub-Dub
normal sound the heart makes
Lub
correlates with AV closures
Dub
correlates with SL closures
Major Categories of Blood Vessels
Arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Venules
Veins
Arteries
transport blood away from the heart
Arterioles
small arteries
Capillaries
smallest blood vessels used for nutrient and waste exchange between the tissues and the blood
Venules
small veins
Veins
transport blood toward the heart
Vessel Structures
Tunica Intima
Tunica Media
Tunica Externa
Tunica Intima
innermost layer of the vessels, simple squamous epithelium sometimes referred to the "endothelium" present in all vessels
Tunica Media
middle layer of the vessels, composed of smooth muscle and/or elastic connective tissues.
Tunica Externa
outermost layer of the vessels; composed of fibrous connective tissue
Vasoconstriction
higher blood pressure
Vasodilatation
lower blood pressure
Pre-capillary Sphincters
doughnut shaped smooth muscle
Baroreceptors
"stretch" receptors located in specific vessels
Higher stretch (higher pressure) = body lowers blood pressure
Chemoreceptors
sensitive to pH
a lower pH (higher CO2) causes an increase in blood pressure
Hormones
ADH (antidiuretic hormone) causes an increase in blood pressure