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Function of the blood:
regulates body temperature
fights foreign organisms/substances
buffers the tissues
liquid; mostly water; plasma proteins; glucose; hormones; urea; Ne, K, Cl, Fe, Ca (electrolytes); vitamins; enzymes; dissolved gases (O2+CO2+N2)
Types of Hemocyteoblast
Composition of Erythrocytes
very small; circular; biconcave disc; anucleate (no nucleus); transport of O2 and CO2; most numerous of the formed elements; hematocrit= packed cells (all cells+platelets); 46.2% average for males & 40.6% for females
substance produced by the kidneys in response to low O2 levels in the blood being supplied to the kidneys
type A&B antigens
Can donate to AB
Can receive from A, B, AB, O (universal recipient)
Type A&B antibodies
Can donate to A, B, AB, O (universal donor)
Can receive from O
decrease in the number of red blood cells
decrease in hemoglobin concentration
lack of protein/iron/B12 in your diet
small granules that stain light pink to blue black with wrights
most numerous of all the WBC's
stain reddish orange with wrights
phagocytic: antigen-antibody complexes
large granules that stain reddish-purple to blue black with wrights stain
granules contain histamine therein
-directly attack foreign cells/substances
Extrinsic Pathway ---> Tissue Trauma ---> Prothrombinase ---> Thrombin ---> Fibrinogen ---> Fibrin ---> Blood Trauma ---> Intrinsic Pathway
insoluble, thread-like polymer that forms a network across the wound. Attaches to margins and prevents the loss of the formed elements
Valves of the Heart
Left Atrioventricular Valve
Right Atrioventricular Valve
Pulmonary Semilavar Valve
Aortic Semilavar Valve
Right Atrioventricular Valve (AV)
located between the right atria and right ventricle
chordate tendons and papillary muscles
specialized excitatory and conductive muscle fibers that undergo spontaneous, rhythmical self excitation. (produce cellular activity, rhythmically.)
Sinoartrial Node (SA)
produces electrical charge 70-80 times a minute. located in the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava.
Atrioventricular Node (AV)
located in the inter atrial septum detects and holds the discharge of the SA node for about 0.1 sec, then sends it through the AV bundle (Bundle of His)
smallest blood vessels used for nutrient and waste exchange between the tissues and the blood
innermost layer of the vessels, simple squamous epithelium sometimes referred to the "endothelium" present in all vessels
middle layer of the vessels, composed of smooth muscle and/or elastic connective tissues.
"stretch" receptors located in specific vessels
Higher stretch (higher pressure) = body lowers blood pressure
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