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Vocabulary for Chapters 28 & 29 of The American Pageant, 13th Edition.

Henry Demarest Lloyd

He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.

Jacob Riis

A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote 'How The Other Half Lives" in 1890.

Ida Tarbell

A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.

Robert M. La Follette

Pogressive who reformed the system so that the people themselves could vote on who candidates would be. Made sure people were given jobs based on merit system

Upton Sinclair

muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things he had seen working in a Chicago meat processing plant.

John Muir

United States naturalist (born in England) who advocated the creation of national parks (1838-1914).

Gifford Pinchot

Head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them.


allowed all citizens to introduce a bill into the legislative and required members to take a vote on it


The name given to the political process in which the general public votes on an issue of public concern.


the act of removing an official by petition


This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.

Seventeenth Amendment

allowed americans to vote directly for U.S senators

Eighteenth Amendment

prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

Triangle Shirtwaist fire

In 1911 this fire broke out in NY killing hundreds of people, mostly women, who were trapped behind the doors

Woodrow Wilson

28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize.

Louis D. Brandeis

A prominent reformer and Attorney in "Muller vs. Oregon" (1908) that persuaded Supreme Court to accept constitutionality of laws protecting women workers saying conditions are harder on women's weaker bodies. Wrote book "Other People's Money and How Bankers use it" (1914) that pushed reform within the banks. Nominated in 1916 by Woodrow Wilson for Supreme Court.

Pancho Villa

Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor.

John J. Pershing

commander of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), was sent by wilson to capture Pancho Villa

Underwood Tariff Bill

This was passed in 1913 to battle the tariff part of the triple wall of privilege, and provided a substantial reduction of tariff rates. Lobbyists tried to disembowel the bill, but Wilson promptly issued a fighting message that stopped them with public opinion. It reduced import fees and was a landmark in tax legislation because it tied into the sixteenth amendment.

Sixteenth Amendment

The constitutional amendment adopted in 1913 that explicitly permitted Congress to levy an income tax.

dollar diplomacy

Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries

Federal Reserve Act of 1913

was designed to regulate the nation's money and supply and credit by buying and selling government bonds and issuing Federal Reserve Notes.

Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914

This law authorized a presidentially-appointed commission to oversee industries engaged in interstate commerce, such as the meatpackers.

Clayton Act

Corrected the problems of the Sherman Antitrust Act; outlawed certain practices that restricted competition; unions on strike could no longer be considered violating the antitrust acts

Workingmen's Compensation Act of 1916

of 1916 it granted civil service employees financial assistance while disabled


British passanger ship that was torpedoed by a German U-boat in 1915; 1200 people died and 128 Americans died.

Bull Moose Party

The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party. His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before.

Triple Wall of Privilege

The banks, trusts, and tariffs that Wilson pledged to topple were collectively known as this

Victoriano Huerta

A Mexican military officer and President of Mexico who was also leader of the violent revolution that took place in 1913. His rise to power caused many Mexicans to cross the border as well as angering the United States who saw him as a dictator.


a building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety

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