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the individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person


one's sense of agency, action or power


the self as perceived as in object by the "I"; as the self as one imagines others perceive one


some one or something outside of oneself

Generalized other

an internalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settings- regardless of whether we've encountered those people or places before


the process by which one's sense of social values, beliefs, and norms are recognized, often deliberately through an intense social progress that may take place in a total institution.

Total institution

an institution in which one is totally immersed and that controls all the basics of day-to-day life; no barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life and all activity occurs in the same place and under the same single authority


recognizable social position that an individual occupies


the duties and behaviors expected of some one who holds a particular status

role strain

the incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status.

role conflict

tension caused by competing demands between two or more roles pertaining to different statuses

Status set

all the statuses one holds simultaneously

ascribed status

a status into which one is born; involuntary status

achieved status

a status into which one enters; voluntary status

master status

one status within a set that stands out or overrides all others

gender roles

sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as male or female

symbolic interactionism

a micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people's actions

dramaturgical theory

the view (advanced by Erving Goffman) of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors on metaphorical stages, with roles, scripts, costumes, and sets


literally "the methods of the people," this approach to studying hman interactions focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world, convey this understanding to others, and produce a mutually shared social order

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