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38 terms

Urinary System

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excretory system
another name for urinary system
kidneys
a pair of bean-shaped organs that filter water and waste materials from the blood
adipose capsule
fatty tissue surrounding the kidney
renal fascia
protective outer covering of the kidney
cortex
outer layer of the kidney
medulla
inner part of the kidney
hilum
indented opening in the kidney where vessels enter and leave
nephrons
filtering units of the kidney that remove wastes from the blood and produce urine
glomerulus
cluster of capillaries located at the top of each nephron
Bowman's capsule
C-shaped strucutre of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and starts the convoluted tubule
urine
liquid waste product produced by the urinary system
renal pelvis
funnel-shaped reservoir that collects the urine and passes it to the ureter
ureters
The tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
bladder
elastic, muscular organ that holds urine until it leaves the body.
rugae
Mucosal folds, which are prominent when the bladder is empty, and disappear as the bladder distends.
peristalsis
involuntary waves of muscle contraction that moves urine through the ureters from the kidney to the bladder
urethra
tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
urinary meatus
the external opening of the urethra.
polyuria
excessive urination
oliguria
below normal amounts of urination
anuria
absence of urine
hematuria
blood in the urine
pyuria
pus in urine
nocturia
urination at night
dysuria
painful urination
retention
inability to empty the bladder
incontinence
involuntary urination
cystitis
inflammation of the bladder
acute glomerulonephritis
inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney, secondary to strep infection of throat or skin
chronic glomerulonephirits
progressive disease that causes scarring and sclerosing of the glomeruli
hemodialysis
removal of waste products from the blood by an artificial kidney machine
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney
renal calculus
a kidney stone
lithotripsy
procedure where shock waves are used to crush kidney stones so that they can be eliminated through the urine
acute renal failure
sudden loss of kidney function caused by renal cell damage from ischemia or toxic subtances, reversible
chronic renal failure
progressive, unreversible loss fo kidney function
uremia
toxic condition that occures when the kidneys fail and urinary waste products are present in the bloodstream
urethritis
inflammation of the urethra caused by bacteria, viruses, or chemicals