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Terms in this set (45)
What were some of Florence Nightingale's contributions to nursing?
First practicing nurse epidemiologist; connected poor sanitation with cholera and dysentery; volunteered in Crimean War; Reduced mortality rate in a hospital from 42.7% to 2.2% in 6 months; defined nursing as having charge of somebody's health based on the knowledge of how to put the body in such a state to be free of disease or to recover from disease.
How does the ANA define nursing?
the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities; prevention of illness and injury; alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response; and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations
What are the aims of nursing?
1. Promote Health
2. Prevent illness
3. Restore health
4. Facilitate coping
Teaching someone how to breast feed or how about having a nutritious diet is an example of which of the aims of nursing?
Diabetes and blood pressure screenings are examples of which one of the aims of nursing?
Taking someone back to their usual state of functioning is an example of which of the aims of nursing?
Addressing external issues is an example of which one of the aims of nursing?
What is the nursing process?
What are the ANA standards of care?
3. Outcomes Identifications
a. Coordination of care
b. Health teaching and promotion
d. Prescriptive authority
Nursing as a profession
Well defined body of knowledge
Strong service orientation
Recognized authority by a professional group
Code of ethics
Organization that sets standards
Nursing as a discipline
Impressive body of lasting work
Concerns relevant to human activities
Relevant traditions that inspire future knowledge development
Considerable scholarly recognition and achievement
State of optimal functioning
What are the different roles of the nurse?
What are some of the advanced roles of nursing?
Standards of Professional
Quality of Care: evaluates quality and effectiveness of nursing practice
Primary Care (Health promotion)
Prenatal and well-baby care
Blood pressure and cancer screening
Mental health counseling and crisis prevention
Community legislation (e.g. seat belts, air bags, bike helmets)
Secondary Acute Care
Acute medical-surgical care
Radiological procedures for acute problems (e.g., x-rays, CT scans)
Cardiovascular and pulmonary rehabilitation
Spinal cord injury programs
Psychiatric and older adult day care
Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG)
Each group has a fixed reimbursement amount with adjustments based on case severity, rural/urban/regional costs, and teaching costs. Hospitals receive a set dollar amount for each patient based on the assigned DRG, regardless of the patient's length of stay or use of services. Most health care providers (e.g., health care networks or managed are organizations) now receive capitated payments.
Provides comprehensive preventive and treatment services to a specific group of voluntarily enrolled people;
Focus is on health maintenance, primary care. All care is provided by a primary care physician;
Referral is needed for access to specialist and hospitalization;
May use capitation
Preferred Provider Organization (PPO)
Type of managed care plan that limits an enrollee's choice to a list of "preferred" hospitals, physicians, and providers. An enrollee pays more out-of-pocket expenses for using a provider not on the list
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
First level: Physiological needs (air, water, food)
Second level: Safety and security needs (physical and physiological security)
Third level: Love and belonging needs (friendships, social relationships, sexual love)
Fourth level: Esteem and self-esteem needs (self confidence, usefulness achievement, self worth)
Fifth level: Self-actualization (the state of fully achieving potential and having the ability to solve problems and cope realistically with situations of life.)
Grand Nursing Theories
These types of theories are systematic and broad in scope, complex, and therefore require further specification through research. Does not provide guidance for specific nursing interventions, but it provides the structural framework for broad, abstract ideas about nursing.
Mid-Range Nursing Theories
These types of theories are more limited in scope and less abstract;
Address specific phenomenon and reflect practice
These types of theories are the first level of theory development. They describe phenomena, speculate on why they occur, and describe their consequences. These theories explain, relate, and in some situations predict nursing phenomena
These types of theories address nursing interventions for a phenomenon, describe the conditions under which the prescription (i.e., nursing interventions) occurs, and predict the consequences;
action oriented and test the validity and predictability of a nursing intervention.
guide nursing research to develop and test specific nursing interventions
Why do we use theories?
Collect, organize, and classify patient data
Understand, analyze, and interpret patient health situations
Guide the formulation of the nursing diagnoses
Plan, implement, evaluate nursing care
Describe, explain, and sometimes predict patients' responses
Demonstrate responsibility and accountability for nursing actions
Achieve desired outcomes for patients
Nightingale: Theory and framework
Goal: Facilitate the reparative processes of the body by manipulating patient's environment
Framework: Nurse manipulates patient's environment to include appropriate noise, nutrition, hygiene, light, comfort, socialization, and hope
Watson: Theory and Framework
Goal: Promote health, restore patient to health, and prevent illness
Framework: Involves the philosophy and science of caring. Caring is an interpersonal process comprising interventions to meet human needs
Peplau: Theory and Framework
Goal: Development interaction between nurse and patient
Framework: Nursing is a significant, therapeutic, interpersonal process. Nurses participate in structuring health care systems to facilitate interpersonal relationships
Leininger: Theory and Framework
Goal: Provide care consistent with nursing's emerging science and knowledge with caring as central focus
Framework: With this transcultural care theory, caring is the central and unifying domain for nursing knowledge and practice
Orem: Theory and Framework
Goal: Care for and help patient attain total self-care
Framework: Nursing care is necessary when the patient is unable to fulfill biological, psychosocial, developmental, or social needs
Benner: Theory and Framework
Goal: Focus on patient's need for caring as a means of coping with stressors of illness
Framework: Caring is central to the essence of nursing. It creates the possibilities for coping and enables possibilities for connecting with and concern for others
Any group of people who live together;
Role is to meet the human needs of its members and act as buffer to demands and expectations of society;
Provides physical, financial, reproductive, affective and coping functions to protect the individual;
Provides healthcare activities, health beliefs and health values for its members
Specific group of people in the same geographic area under similar regulations and having common values
A view of the world and a set of values (clarification) beliefs and traditions handed down from generation to generation
A group within a group
Identification with a group based on the groups common heritage
Based on specific physical characteristics
A threatened or attempted physical attack by someone who appears to be able to cause bodily harm if not stopped
the unlawful beating of a person; act of beating or pounding; any large group of related things
Failure by a health professional to meet accepted standards.
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