Political Reform and the Progressive Era
Terms in this set (91)
Period after the Civil War, means coated with a thin layer of gold.
How was the spoils system reformed during the Gilded Age?
The Pendleton Act was signed and jobs were given by merit.
What abuses do you think where occurring under the spoils system that made reform necessary?
Jobs were given a favors for political support instead of experience for that particular job.
Who were some of the principal muckrakers darning the progressive era, and what did each try to do?
A. Ida Tarbell, more control on trust.
B. Jacob Riis, shocking images of slum life
C. Upton Sinclair, meatpacking industry
Which jobs are civil service positions?
Government jobs except elected officials, military, and the judiciary.
What happens in a primary election?
Before the Progressive political reform, party leaders would pick the candidate but after the voters select their parties candidate.
What did muckrakers try to do?
Expose political and big business corruption.
What happens in a successful referendum?
Voters can propose bills to the legislature so they can be put on a ballot for the public to vote on it.
How are tax rates structured under the graduated income tax?
You pay based on the amount of money you make. Wealthy people pay a higher rate.
How did muckrakers stir public opinion?
They would write stirring articles about corruption and get the public involved.
What two concerns shaped politics during the Gilded Age?
1. Corruption in government
2. Industrialists and the wealthy were getting rich at the expense of the public
Rewarding political supporters with government jobs.
What did the assassination of Garfield change?
After Garfield was shot by a disappointed office seeker, efforts to end the spoils system came into play.
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
A system of hiring and promotion based on the merit not political ties.
1887 law passed to regulate railroad and other interstate businesses and no more rebates
Sherman Anti Trust Act
Passed to curb the abuses of big business in 1890, it was instead used to break up labor unions by claiming unions were a "labor trust".
Cheated NY out of more than a million dollars but the people loved him.
How did the civil service system limit corruption?
Jobs where to be filled on merit not political favors.
An election in which the voters choose a candidate instead of the party leaders.
The people vote to remove an elected official. Tis was a way to get rid of corrupt officials.
This allows voters to put a bill before a state legislature.
A way for the people to vote directly on a proposed new law.
Graduated Income Tax
Taxes would be paid based on the amount of money you make. The rich would pay more
What reform put more power in the hands of the voters?
1906 - Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business
What President was a strong supporter of Progressive goals?
Theodore Roosevelt, many called him a trustbuster. Also the first Pres. to side with strikers.
Someone who breaks up a trust into smaller companies or works to completely destroy monopolies and trusts.
Did TR see a difference between good and bad trust or did he think they should all be destroyed?
No, he believed efficient trust should be left alone.
Everyone should have the same opportunity to succeed.
Protection of natural resources.
A natural area protected and managed by the federal government..
Why did Roosevelt support conservation?
He believed in using natural resources wisely because he was thinking of the future. If you cut down trees, plant more.
Name some Progressive causes Taft supported.
A. Graduated income tax
B. Government workers 8 hour work day
C. Started Federal Office to over see child labor
How did the split among the Republicans help Woodrow Wilson become President?
The Republicans split their votes between Taft and Roosevelt allowing Taft to win with the majority vote.
What party did Roosevelt start after he did not receive the Republican nomination for the 1912 election?
Progressive Party called the Bull Moose Party
What was widespread during the Gilded Age?
Corruption and dishonest in the government.
Critics said a key part of the problem during the Gilded Age was...
the spoil system
Name three efforts to control big business.
1. Sherman Anti Trust Act- can't destroy or limit business competition.
2.Interstate Commerce Commission- forbid kick backs and rebates
3. Pendleton Act- Created the Civil Service Commission, jobs were filled based on merit not political favors for support
Name three political reforms
1. Wisconsin Act
2. Graduated Income Tax-16th Amendment
3. 17th Amendement
In 1904, who campaigned on the promise of a Square Deal for all Americans.
What President pressed for Conservation?
Who set aside thousands of acres to make National parks?
Who did Roosevelt support when he decided not to run for President?
William H. Taft
Brilliant scholar and a cautious reformer.
Who was behind the Acts of New Freedom and describe?
Woodrow Wilson. It created the Federal Trade Commission so they could investigate companies thought of doing the wrong thing.
Who were two of the first Suffragist Leaders?
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B Anthony
Who founded the Tuskegge Institute in Alabama?
Booker T. Washington
Who was one of the first African American leaders in the fight for segregation?
Booker T. Washington
Why was W.E.B. Du Bois ideas different than Booker T. Washington's for equal rights?
Du Bois believed you should fight for the right to equality.
What did Du Bois help found?
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
What is a barrio?
Mexican American Neighborhood
What is the Gentleman's Agreement?
Japan would stop more workers from coming to the US and the US would allow Japanese woman to join their husbands in the US
What two minorities face discrimination
Jews and Roman Catholics
What was the goal of the National Woman Suffrage Association?
A Constitutional Amendment to give woman the right to vote.
Who were the founders of the National Womans Suffrage Association?
Elizabeth Cody Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
What four Western state gave woman the rights to vote by the late 1800's?
What happened to increase support for woman's suffrage?
More woman worked outside the home and demanded a sy in making the laws. Also, the new leaders, Carrie Chapman Catt and Alice Paul planned detailed strategies to win suffrage state by state.
What were the goals of most woman's clubs and reforms?
At first they focused on advancing education. Then they switched to raising money for parks, libraries, and schools. They also pressed for laws to protect woman and children, to ensure pure food and drugs and to win the vote.
What was temperance?
Campaign against alcohol
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
One of the groups that was most involved in trying to bring about the end of alcohol sails and close down the business that made alcoholic beverages. Lead by Frances Willard and Carry Nation
Ban on sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages. Ratified in 1919
Ida B. Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores
What other ethnic groups faced legal segregation other than African Americans?
Mexicans and Japanese
Why did most Mexicans immigrate to the US in 1910?
Revolution and famine
What is a mutualistas
Mexican immigrants would pool their money to pay for insurance and legal advice.
Where did most Japanese go before entering mainland US?
Hawaii to work on sugarcane plantations
What city forced segregated schools in 1906 against Asian students?
Who set up parochial schools to support their congregation?
The Roman Catholics
Who set up the Anit-Defamation League
A system of hiring and promotion based on the merit principle and the desire to create a nonpartisan government service.
US senators to be elected by the people (1913)
US Forest Service
A federal agency that manages public lands in national forests
People that wanted to get rid of big business
Ban on alcohol
Northern Securities Company
The first company that TR destroyed
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Used to break up unions but TR used it to break up big business
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
began prohibition (made it illegal to sell alcoholic drinks)
gave people the right to vote directly for senators
gave women the right to vote
Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
Journalists who wrote about corruption in business and politics in order to bring about reform.
1913, authorized US govenrment to collect income tax
Bull Moose Party
nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912
a person who fought for woman's voting rights
Separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Prejudice against Jews
Federal Trade Commision
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy
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