60 terms

Exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
Perfusion
Adequate blood and oxygen are provided to all cells in body
Components of circulatory system
working pump (heart)
Network of pipes (blood vessels)
Adequate amount of fluid (blood)
Circulatory system failure
heart failure
fluid loss
blood vessels failure
types of shock
cariogenic
hypovolemic
neurogenic
septic
anaphylactic
psychogenic
Signs and Symptoms of Shock
altered mental status
pale, cold, clammy skin
Nausea and vomiting
rapid breathing and pulse
unresponsive in late stage
Care for shock
treat life threatening injuries
position victim on back
raise legs 6-12 inches
prevent heat loss
Anaphylaxis
immune system reacts violently to a particular substance
anaphylaxis can have severe reactions to
medications
foods
insect stings
plant pollen
Recognizing anaphylaxis
Skin
flushing, itching, burning
hives
swelling
cyanosis
circulatory system
weak pulse
dizziness
fainting
S/S of Anaphylaxis
sneezing
chest tightness
breathing difficulty
secretions of fluid
wheezing
breathing stops
care for anaphylazis
monitor breathing
administer CPR if needed
call 911 immediatley
use epipen
keep responsive victim sitting up
give anahistamine to prevent funther reactions
Hemorrhage
a large amount of bleeding in a short time
Types of bleeding
capillary---> oozing
venous--->flowing
Arterial--->spurting
Care for external bleeding
wear gloves
expose wound
cover with clean cloth or gauze
apply direct pressure
elevate the area
apply pressure bandage
pressure point
reassure victim
Internal bleeding causes
bleeding stomach ulcers
lacerated liver
ruptured spleen
broken bones (such as femur)
Recognizing internal Bleeding
bright red blood from mouth or urine or rectum
nonmenstrual vaginal bleeding
coughing, vomiting blood
black, foul-smelling stool
pain tenderness, bruising, or swelling
broken ribs, bruises over lower chest
rigid abdomen
care for internal bleeding
monitor breathing
vomiting, roll victim onto left side
treat for shock
treat internal bleeding in an extremity by splinting
seek immediate medical care
Bruises
form of internal bleeding
non life threatening
apply ice 20 min
raise extremities if no bones are broken and apply an elastic bandage for compression
types of wounds
abrasion
laceration
incision
puncture
avulsion
amputation
care for wounds
gloves
expose wound
control bleeding
wash with soap and water
Shallow wound cleaning
soap and water and flush with clean water
wound with high risk infection
seek medical care
remove small objects with sterile tweezers
seek medical care when
high risk wounds
wound closure
victim hasn't has a tetanus booster in 10 years
wound is dirty and no tetans booster in 5 years
must receive booster within 72 hours
signs of infection
swelling redness
sensation of warmth
throbbing pain
pus discharge
fever
swelling of lymph nodes
red streaks leading from wound to heart
care for infected wound
keep area clean
soak in warm water or apply warm wet packs
elevate infected portion
apply antibiotic ointment
change dressings
seek med help if infection persists or worsens
tetanus
bacteria enters a wound that has no oxygen and produces powerful toxin
no antidote once it hits the bloodstream
tetanus vaccine prevents disease
types of amputations
guillotine
crushing
devolging
care for amputations
control bleeding
treat for shock
recover amputated part
wrap part in gauze, place in bag, keep cool
transport victim with part
Blisters
collection of fluid in a bubble under outer layer of skin from repeated rubbing of small area
Care fro blisters
clean with soap and water
drain fluid from blister with sterile needle
apply moleskin
apply antibiotic ointment
impaled objects
pencils
screwdrivers
knives
glass
steel rods
fence posts
care for embedded objects
expose area
do not remove object
control bleeding around the object
stabilize
fishooks
use pliers with tempered jaws or fish-line method
closed wounds
results when a blunt object strikes the body
blood vessels are crushed
types of closed wounds
bruises and contusions
hematomas
crush injuries
wounds that require medical attention
uncontrolled bleeding
deep wounds
large or deeply embedded objects
foreign matter in wound
bites
possible scar
eyelid cut
slit lip
internal bleeding
uncertain how to treat
need a tetanus shot
Gunshot wound cause injuries in 2 ways
lacerations and crushing
shock waves and temporary cavitation
what percent of burn injuries occur in the home
70%
how many burn injuries occur each year?
2 million
75,000 require hospitalizaiont
>3,000 end in death
types of burns
thermal
electric
chemical
Thermal urns
contact with flames, hot objects, hot liquid, and steam
3 seconds 140 degrees
or 1 second 156 degrees
caus full thickness burn in an adult
determine burn with
rule of palm
degrees of burn
1st superficial
2nd partial thickness
3rd full thickness
care for thermal burns
stop burning process
remove all hot clothing (jewlery)
monitor victims breathing
1st degree
redness
mild swelling
tenderness
pain
care for 1st degree
immerse in cold water
administer ibuprofen
drink water
apply aloe vera
raise extremity to reduce swelling
2nd degree burns
blisters
swelling
weeping fluids
intense pain
care for 2nd degree
immerse in cold water
administer ibuprofen
drink water
antibiotic ointment
cover with dry nonstick dressing
seek medical care with 2nd degree burns
20% for adults
10-20% for children or elderly
care for large 2nd degree burns
do not apply cold=hypothermia
cover the burn with dressing
treat for shock
seek medical care
3rd degree burn
dead nerve endings
leathery, waxy
peraly gray or charred skin
care for 3rd degree burns
not necessary to apply cold
cover burn with dressing
treat for shock
seek medical care
chemical burns
result of caustic or corrosive substance touching the skin
remove quickly
first aid is the same for all chemical burns
care for chemical burns
flush skin with water
remove contaminating clothing
flush for 20 minutes or longer
cover burn
seek medical care
types electric burns
thermal burn (flame)
arc burn (flash)
true electrical injury (contact)
care for electrical burns
make the scene safe
monitor breathing and treat accordingly
if victim fell check for shock
place blankets under and over victim
seek immediate medical care
contact with current
turn off power
feel tingle step away
do not attempt to move any wires
3 ypes of commonly occurring braing injuries
concussion
contusion
hematoma
care for eye blows
apply ice for 15min
do not apply pressure
seek medical care if there is pain or reduced vision