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Pre-IB Biology exam review

STUDY
PLAY
biology
the study of living things
cell
basic structural unit of life
examples of organisms
fish, grass, cat, mushroom, corn
characteristics of life
organization and cells, use of energy, homostasis, growth and development, reproduction
asexual reproduction
reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes; offspring are identical to parents
living things
multicellular organisms
homeostasis
maintaining stable internal conditions
1,000 meters
kilometer = __?__
meters
in the universal system of measurement, lenght is measured in ____
400 x
magnification of a light microscope
hypothesis
a proposed explanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions
observation
the act of perceiving a natural occurrence that causes someone to pose a question
experiment
used to test a hypothesis and its predictions
data
a body of facts and information collected during an experiment
variable
the part of an experiment that is tested
control
a variable of comparison
theory
a coherent group of general propositions used as principles of explanation for a class of phenomena
conclusion
the final statement summarizing findings of an experiment
Observation, hypothesis, prediction, experiment, analyze, conclusion
steps of the scientific method
controlled experiment
compares an experimental group and a control group and has independent and dependent variables
find a statement explaining observations, and data can be treated. Now, compare variables to the control group
determine the hypothesis, variables, and control group in an experiment
nucleotide
a monomer of DNA and RNA with nitrogen, phosphate, and sugar
hydrolysis
chemical decomposition in which a compound is split into other compounds by reacting with water
amino acid
building block or proteins; a class of organic compounds containing at least one amino group
condensation reaction
a chemical reaction that produces H2O (water)
glucose
C6H12O6 -- a 6 carbon monosacc. ; a result of photosynthesis
enzymes
organic molecules that catalyze reactions in living systems are _____
glucose
a compound found in living things that supplies the energy in its chemical bonds directly to cells is ____
Robert Hooke
_____ coined the term "cell"
bacteria
_____ are believed to be the first photosynthetic organisms on earth
ribosome
organelles that synthesize protein in the Rough E.R.
Rough E.R.
a system of flattened sacs with ribosomes tat produce phospholipids and proteins
Smooth E.R.
builds lipids; has no ribosomes
nucleus
contol center of cell; contains genetic information
golgi apparatus
a system of flattened membranous eukaryotic sacs containing new proteins or lipids; modifies proteins for export
lysosome
vesicles containing digestive enzymes; found in animal cells
mitochondrion
organelles that transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP; produce energy; power house of the cell
cilia
hair-like structures that assist in cell movement
flagella
whip-like tail; assist in cell movement
fatty acid
unbranched carbon chain
polypeptide
a chain of 50 or more amino acids would be called a _______
acidic
a solution with a pH of 2 would be best described as being ____
activation energy, temperature, and pH
these 3 things determine the speed or rate of a chemical reaction
eukaryotes
animal and plant cells are examples of ____ (prokaryotes or eukaryotes)
bacterial cell
example of a prokaryotic cell
blood cell
example of a eukaryotic cell
protista
prokaryotes belong to the kingdom _____
RNA
moves through nuclear pores to the cytoplasm to carry out functions, ribonucleic acid, single helix
DNA
contains genetic information; found in nucleus; transribed into RNA; double helix; deoxyribonucleic acid
plasma membrane
another name for the membrane that surrounds the organelles and the cell
hydrophilic head
the "head" of the membrane bilayer molecule is _____
polar
water is ____ (polar or nonpolar)
polar molecules
nonpolar molecules dissolve in other ______ (what type of molecules)
semi-permeable
when a cell only allows certain substances in and out, it is considered _____
small cell
which is more effective? (large cell or small cell)
Cell Theory
all living things are composed of cells; cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism; cells come only from the reproduction of other cells
free ribosomes
make protein on the rough E.R.
Golgi apparatus
packages, processes, and secretes proteins for export
lipids; calcium
Smooth E.R. makes ____ and ____
photo
chloroplasts are the site of _____synthesis
unicellular
prokaryote organisms are ___ (multicellular or unicellular)
ribosome
The nucleolus is the site of _______ synthesis
lysosomes
_____ contain digestive enzymes and get rid of toxins and old organelles
mitochondrion
cells that have a high energy requirement generally have many _____
nucleus; plastids
organeles that are surrounded by two membranes and contain DNA are the ____ and _____
epithelial tissue (skin)
cells that form the surface coverings of animal bodies constitute _____-
specialization
the process in which cells become restricted to carrying out one or a few functions is called Cell _____
organ
the stomach is an example of the level of organization called ____
Singer and Nicholson
proposed the "Fluid Mosaic Model"
deoxyribose
DNA contains a five carbon sugar called _____
cohesion
water clings to itself in a property called ____
hydrogen bonding
the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge
disassociate
when sodium chloride is dissolved in water, the sodium ions _____
carbon atoms
organic compounds contain ______ (are made of ___)
covalent bond is broken
ATP releases energy when ________
polar
the slight positive and slight negative charge in a molecule results in the molecule being called _____
kinetic energy
energy assosciated with movement
metabolism
taken together, the thousands of chemical reactions that take place in a plant or animal cell are called
heterotroph
organisms that can't produce their own food; get energy from other foods
autotrophs
organisms that use energy from photosyntheses as food
bacteria
the first living organism on earth was most likely a bacteria
adaptation
the ability of a species to survive in a particular ecological nice
evolution
the theory that species change over time
ecology
the branch of biology that studies the interactions of organisms with one another and their environment is called
binary fission
an example of asexual reproduction is _____
mitosis
a way to produce new cells in multicellular organisms is called ____
gametes
sexual reproduction involves the mixing of _____ between mates
conjugation
bacteria go through a special kind of sexual reproduction called _____
conjugation tubule
the specialized structure that bacteria use to transfer plasmids between each other and also for attachment to host cells is called the_____
sexual reproduction
when genetic information is passed from parent to offspring, the process is called _____
thymine
in DNA, adenine always pairs with ______
uracil
In RNA, adenine always pairs with _____
cytosine
in DNA or RNA, guanine always pairs with ____
organelles
cells contain membrane bound structures that have a specific function called _____
metabolism
the sum total of all chemical reactions
hydrolysis
____ is a chemical reaction that breaks down a substance
homeostasis
_____ maintains a stable internal environment by controlling metabolism
catalyst
A ______ is a protein that lowers activation energy for reactions to occur.
denature
If the temperature gets too hot or too cold, the protein will _____
base
always carry the microscope by its arm and the _____
ocular
In order to obtain the correct magnification for a compound microscope you must multiply the _____ by the objective lens.
4 x or 10 x
When you first put a slide on the stage for viewing, you must use the _____ objective to focus
slide
the stage clips are for holding the _____ in place
diaphragm
The _____ is adjusted to let more or less light into the viewing area
revolving nose piece
The ____ _____ _____ moves the objective around
10 x
The magnifying power of the ocular lens is _____
body tube
the _____ _____ is an empty tube for light to pass through
objective
The ____ combined with the ocular lens gives the total magnification
carrier protein
The membrane component that allows larger materials in and out of the cell is called _____ _____
peripheral; integral
The lipid bilayer contains two general types of proteins: _____ and _____
integral protein
the membrane component that binds with messengers and allows messages into the cell is called ____
integral
_____ protein is embedded in the membrane
carrier
a _____ protein sticks out at the interior and exterior of a cell
atoms
_____ are the building blocks of molecules
cell or molecule
a ______ is many basic units put together
functions
cells are different sizes and shapes due to their _______
prokaryotic cell
what type of cell lacks a nucleus, and contains plasmids and ribosomes?
plant cells
what type of cell has a cell wall, contains plastids and large vacuoles?
animal cells
what kind of cell has a cell membrane, mitochondria and small vacuoles?
Chlorophyll A
_______ absorbs more red light and less blue light
thylakoids of the chloroplasts
the photostems and electron transport chains are located in the ______
pigments of Chlorophyll A
Both photosystem 1 and photosystem 2 contain ______
providing H+ atoms
water participates directly in the light reactions of photosynthesis by ______
the excited electrons as they pass along the electron transport chain of photosystem 2
the energy that is used to establish the proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane comes from_________
CO2 fixation (Kreb's Cycle)
What reaction is catalyzed by RuBP carboxylase
splitting of water molecules
electrons needed to reestablish the cholorphyll in photosystem 2 come from _______
oxidaton
oxygen is a product of the process of_____
2
the number of phosphate groups in an ADP molecule is _____
the sun
the ultimate source of evergy for almost all living things is _____
carotenoids
light absorbing accessory pigments in photosynthesis
photosystem
protein complex in thylakoid membrane; helps with photosynthesis; only in plant cells
PGAL
a 3 carbon compound that occurs as an intermediate in several central metabolic pathways
RuBP
a 5 carbon substrate invovled in carbon fixation; used and created during calvin cycle; product of phosphorylation of ribose
visible spectrum
the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be seen by the human eye
chlorophyll
a green pigment present in most plants; gives plants their green color
biochemical pathway
a series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is used in the next reaction
oxygen
what product of the light reactions of photosynthesis is released and does not participate further in photosynthesis?
ATP + NADPH
where does the energy required for the calvin cycle originate
"excited electrons" of PGAL
proteins are moved into the thylakoid using energy from _____
calvin cycle
carbon atoms are fixed into organic compounds in what cycle
H2O
to produce the same amount of carbohydrate, C4 plants require less ______
citric acid
6 carbon; formed in Krebs Cycle; intermediate in the metabolism of carbohydrates
fermentation
cells make limited amounts of ATP by converting glucose into lactic acid or ethyl alcohol- anaerobic respiration
NAD+
2 molecules of nicoeinamde and dinucleotide; accepts electrons during redox reactions
cytosol
water soluble components of cell cytoplasm; aqueous fluid- bathes organelles inside of cell membrane
cell membrane
semipermeable membrane enclosing the cytoplam of a cell
aerobic respiration
the use of oxygen in the breakdown of something to create energy
glycolysis
glucose is oxidized to pyruvic acid; the catabolism of carbohydrates by enzymes
kilocalorie
1/1,000 of a calorie
2 molecules of pyruvic acid
in aerobic respiration, glucose is converted into _____ when they enter the Kreb's cycle
ethyl alcohol and CO2
what are the products of lactic acid fermentation in yeasts?
3 units of ATP
know the amounts of ATP's produced in each stage of cellular respiration
FADH2 + NADPH
What molecules donate electrons to the electron transport chain?
cellular respiration
the breakdown of organic compounds to produce ATP is _____
ATP
What does glycolysis produce?
NAD+
what molecule is generated from lactic acid and alcoholic fermentations
PGAL
during glycolysis (aerobic respiration), pyruvic acid produces CO2, NADH, H+, and ____
oxaloacetic acid and citric acid
the electron transport chain is driven by what two products
electrons are transported from one molecule to another
what happens to electrons as they are transported along the electron transport chain?
39%
the energy efficiency of aerobic respiration is ___
biochemical pathways
where doews glycolysis take place?
oxidized
during glycolysis, glucose is ____
NAD
lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation produce _____
glycolysis
pyruvic acid is a product of what reaction
oxygen
aerobic respiration requires _____
NADH
what is the final product of the krebs cycle?
2 molecules of ATP
how much energy is gained through glycolysis
krebs cycle
which cycle yields the most energy