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APES Friedland Ch 4
Terms in this set (43)
the average weather that occurs in a given regio
the layer of Earth's atmosphere closest to the ground
-containing most of atmosphere's nitrogen, oxygen and water vapor
-the layer of atmosphere that lies above troposphere
-contains the ozone layer.
percent of solar radiation reflected by a surface
the maximum concentration of water vapor the air can hold at a given temperature
The cooling that occurs when warm air rises and encounters lower atmospheric pressure.
Increases the temperature of the air
the heating that occurs when cold air sinks and encounters higher atmospheric pressure.
Decreases the temperature of the air
latent heat release
the release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water.
convection currents that cycle between the equatior and 30N and 30S
cells of air circulation occurring between 60N and 60S and each pole (90N and 90S).
the effect of Earth's rotation on the direction of winds and currents
-deflection of an object's path
large-scale patterns of water circulation
-clockwise direction in N Hemisphere
-counterclockwise direction in S Hemisphere
the rising of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface water that has been moved away
-oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water
-caused by density difference brought about by variations in temperature and salinity. As ocean water freezes at the poles it concentrates salt, and the colder, denser water sinks.
El Nino-Southern Oscillation
a periodic ocean anomaly caused by upper atmosphere changes in the Southern Hemisphere that weaken or reverse the trade winds and cause warm water to move eastward across the Pacific basin
-cause cooler and wetter SE US
-dry weather in S Africa and SE Asia
an area that has little precipitation found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side
because some barrier (mountains) causes the
a broad, regional type of ecosystem characterized by
-distinctive climate and soil conditions
-distinctive kind of biological community adapted to those conditions
a cold and treeless biome with low-growing vegetation
permanently frozen layer of soil
a forest made up of conferous evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons
a coastal biome with moderate temp. and high precipiatation
temperate seasonal forests
-a biome with warmer summers and colder winters than temperate rainforest
-dominated by deciduous trees
-biome with hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters
-community is adapted to fire and drought
biome with hot, dry summers and cold, harsh winters
-tall grass prairie, perennial grasses and herbs
-resistant to drought, fire, and cold
-warm and wet biome
-more that 200 cm (80 in) per year
-temp are warm or hot year-round
-extremely dry condition
open water in lakes and ponds
-with sunlight and phytoplankton
zone in a freshwater where sunlight does not reach
muddy bottom of a lake, pond or ocean
an aquatic biome that is covered with freshwater for part of each year
marsh containing nonwoody emergent vegetation
found in temperate climates
-salt tolerant grasses above the low tide
-sea grasses under the water.
coastal wetlands that are widespread across tropical regions, including FL and HI
salt-tolerant trees with roots submerged in water
portion of the shoreline that lies between the high and low tide
most diverse marine biome in warm, shallow waters
Occurs when a coral becomes stressed and expels most of its colorful algae, leaving an underlying white skeleton of calcium carbonate
upper layer of water where light penetrates, enabling photosynthesis
layer of water where light does not penetrate sufficiently for photosynthesis to occur.
process by which bacteria generates energy with methane and hydrogen sulfide
a shallow zone in a freshwater habitat where most algae and emergent plants grow
a habitat in which the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean.
a mixture of freshwater and saltwater
intertropical convergence zone
an area of Earth that receives the most intense sunlight - equator
-where the ascending branches of the two Hadley cells converge
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