193 terms

EMT: Anatomy, Physiology, and Medical Terminology

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anatomy
the study of the structure of the body and the relationship of its parts to each other
physiology
the study of the function of the living body and its parts
anatomical position
a position in which the patient is standing erect, facing forward, with arms down at the sides and palms forward
supine
lying face up
prone
lying face down
lateral recumbent position
a position in which the patient is lying on the left or right side
Fowler's position
a position in which the patient is lying on the back with the superior body elevated at a 45 to 60 degree angle
Semi-Fowler's position
a position in which the patient is lying on the back with upper body elevated at less than 45 degrees
Trendelenburg position
lying on the back with the lower part of the body elevated higher than the head on an inclined plane
Shock Position
elevation of the legs of a supine patient approximately 12 inches; an alternative to the Trendelenburg position; sometimes useful for treating a simple faint but no longer recommended in the treatment of shock
anatomical planes
imaginary divisions of the body
Sagittal plane
a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left segments
midsagittal plane
a vertical plane that divides the body into equal right and left halves
frontal plane
a plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior halves
transverse plane
a plane that divides the body into superior and inferior segments
midline
an imaginary line drawn vertically through the middle of the patient's body, dividing it into right and left planes
midaxillary line
an imaginary line that divides the body into anterior and posterior planes; the imaginary line from the middle of the armpit to the ankle
anterior plane
the front, or abdominal side of the body
posterior plane
the back or dorsal side of the body
transverse line
an imaginary line drawn horizontally through the waist
superior plane
everything above the transverse line (above the waist)
inferior plane
everything below the transverse line (below the waist)
Midclavicular line
an imaginary line from the center of either clavicle down the anterior thorax
anterior
toward the front
posterior
toward the back
superior
toward the head
inferior
beneath, lower, or toward the feet
dorsal
toward the back or the spine
ventral
toward the front, or toward the anterior portion of the body
medial
toward the midline or center of the body
lateral
refers to the left or right of the midline, or away from the midline, or to the side of the body
bilateral
on both sides
proximal
near the point of reference
distal
distant, or far from the point of reference
right
refers to the patient's right
left
refers to the patient's left
midclavicular
refers to the center of the collarbone (clavicle)
midaxillary
refers to the center of the armpit (axilla)
planter
refers to the sole of the foot
palmar
relates to the palm of the hand
abdominal quadrants
the four parts of the abdomen as divided by imaginary horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus
musculoskeletal system
the system of bones and muscle plus connective tissue that provides support and protection to the body and permits motion
skull
the bony structure at the top of the spinal column that houses and protects the brain. The skull has two parts, the cranium and the face.
cranium
the bones that form the top, back, and sides of the skull plus the forehead
face
the area of the skull between the brow and the chin
orbits
the bony structures that surround the eyes; the eye sockets
nasal bones
the bones that form the bed of the nose
maxillae
the fixed upper portion of the jaw
zygomatic bones
the cheekbones
mandible
the lower movable portion of the jaw
spinal column
the column of 33 vertebrae that enclose and protect the spinal cord
vertebrae
the 33 bony segments of the spinal column
intervertebral disk
a fluid-filled pad of touch elastic cartilage that acts as a shock absorber and allows for movement of the spine
cervical spine
the first seven vertebrae, or the neck
thoracic spine
the 12 vertebrae directly below the cervical vertebrae that comprise the upper back
lumbar spine
the five vertebrae located between the sacral and the thoracic spine that form the lower back
sacral spine
five vertebrae that are fused together to form the rigid part of the posterior side of the pelvis
coccyx
the four fused vertebrae that from the most distal end of the spine; the tailbone
thorax
the chest, or that part of the body between the base of the neck and the diaphragm
sternum
the breastbone
clavicle
the collarbone, attached to the superior portion of the sternum
manubrium
the superior portion of the sternum where the clavicle is attached
xiphoid process
inferior portion of the sternum
pelvis
a doughnut-shaped structure that consists of several bones, including the sacrum and the coccyx
iliac crest
the superior margin of the bones of the pelvis
pubis
bone of the groin
ischium
the posterior and inferior portion of the pelvis
extremities
the limbs of the body. The lower include the hops, thighs, legs, ankles, and feet. The upper include the shoulders, arms, forearms, wrists, and hands
acetabulum
the rounded cavity or socket on the external surface of the pelvis that receives the head of the femur
femur
the thighbone
patella
the kneecap
tibia
the medial, larger bone of the lower leg; the shinbone
fibula
the lateral, smaller long bone of the lower leg
malleolus
the knobby surface landmark of the ankle.
calcaneus
the heel bone
tarsals
the bones of the ankle, hindfoot, and midfoot
metatarsals
the bones that form the arch of the foot
phalanges
bones of the fingers, thumbs, and toes
scapula
the shoulder blade
acromion
the lateral triangular projection of the scapula that forms the point of the shoulder
humerus
the largest bone in the upper extremity, located in the proximal portion of the upper arm
radius
the lateral bone of the forearm
ulna
the medial bone of the forearm
olecranon
the part of the ulna that forms the bony prominence of the elbow
carpals
the eight bones that form the wrist
metacarpals
the bones of the hand
joint
a place where one bone meets another
flexion
bending toward the body or decreasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body
extension
straightening away from the body or increasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body
abduction
movement away from the midline
adduction
movement toward the midline
circumduction
a combination of the four preceding motions as is possible with the shoulder joint
pronation
turning the forearm so that palm of the hand is turned toward the back
supination
turning the forearm so the palm of the hand is turned toward the front
ball-and-socket joint
This type of joint permits the widest range of motion. Examples: joints at the shoulder and hip.
hinged joint
This type of joint permits flexion and extension. Elbow joints have forward movement, while knee joints have backward movement
pivot joint
The type of joint allows for a turning motion, and includes the joints between the head and neck at the first and second cervical vertebrae and those in the wrist
gliding joint
The simplest movement between bones, where one bone slides across another to the point where surrounding structures restrict the motion.
saddle joint
This joint is shaped to permit combinations of limited movements along perpendicular planes. Example: ankle
condyloid joint
This is a modified ball-and-socket joint that permits limited motion in two directs. Example: wrist
skeletal muscle
any muscle that can be consciously controlled by the individual
smooth muscle
muscle that carries out the automatic muscular functions of the body
cardiac muscle
a type of involuntary muscle found only in the walls of the heart. It has the property of automaticity, the ability to generate an impulse on its own, separately from the central nervous system
respiration
the exchange of gases between an organism and its environment; the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide that takes place during inhalation and exhalation
oxygenation
the form of reparation in which oxygen molecules move across a membrane from an area of high oxygen concentration to an area of low oxygen concentration, as when oxygen moves out of a blood vessel into a cell; the process by which the blood and the cells become saturated with oxygen
ventilation
the mechanical process by which air is moved in and out of the lungs, primarily caused by changes in pressure inside the chest.
respiratory system
the organs involved in the exchange of gases between an organism and the atmosphere
pharynx
the throat, or passageway for air from the nasal cavity to the larynx and passageway for food from the mouth of the esophagus; the common passageway for the respiratory and digestive tracts
oropharynx
the central portion of pharynx lying between the soft palate and the epiglottis with the mouth as the opening
nasopharyx
the portion of the pharynx that extends from the nostrils to the soft palate
esophagus
passageway at the lower end of the pharynx that leads to the stomach
trachea
the tubelike structure that leads from the larynx to the lungs
larynx
structure that houses the vocal cords and is located inferior to the pharynx and superior to the trachea
thyroid cartilage
the bulky cartilage that forms the anterior portion of the larynx
cricoid cartilage
the most inferior portion of the larynx and only full cartilaginous ring of the upper airway. It is felt immediately below the thyroid cartilage
epiglottis
a small, leaf shaped flap of cartilaginous tissue, located immediately posterior to the root of the tongue, that covers the opening of the larynx to keep food and liquid from entering the trachea and lungs
bronchi
the two main branches leading from the trachea to the lungs, providing the passageway for air movement
bronchioles
small branches of the bronchi
alveoli
the air sacs of the lungs
lungs
the principal organs of respiration
diaphragm
the major muscle of respiration that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity
intercostal muscles
the muscles between the ribs
heart
the muscular organ that contracts to force blood into circulation through the body
pericardium
a double-walled sac that encloses the heart, gives support, and prevents friction as the heart moves within this protective sac
atria
the two upper chambers of the heart
ventricles
the two lower chambers of the heart
valves
structures within the heart and circulatory system that keep blood flowing in one direction and prevent back flow
tricuspid valve
between the right atrium and the right ventricle
pulmonary valve
at the base of the pulmonary artery in the right ventricle
mitral valve
between the left atrium and the left ventricle
aortic valve
at the base of the aortic artery in the left ventricle
artery
blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
aorta
the major artery from the heart
coronary arteries
blood vessels that supply the heart with blood
Pleura
a layer of ticker, more elastic tissue covers the internal chest wall.
Carotid arteries
supply the brain and head with blood
Femoral arteries
the major artery of the thigh and supplies the groin and leg with blood
Dorsalis pedis arteries
Pulsations of the dorsalis pedis, and artery in the foot
Posterior tibial arteries
travels from the calf to the foot
Brachial arteries
the major artery of the upper arm
Radial arteries
the major artery of the arm distal to the elbow joint
Pulmonary arteries
originate at the right ventricle of the heart, carry oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs, where the blood is oxygenated and returned to the heart for circulation throughout the body
arteriole
the smallest kind of artery that carry blood from the arteries into the capillaries
capillary
tiny blood vessel that connects an arteriole to a venule
venule
the smallest branch of a vein
vein
vessel that carries blood toward the heart
venae cavae
the principal veins that carry deoxygenated blood to the heart. The superior carries blood from the upper body; the inferior carries blood from the lower body
pulmonary veins
vein that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
red blood cells
give the blood its color, carry oxygen to the body cells, and carry carbon dioxide away from the cells
white blood cells
part of the body's immune system and help to defend against infection
platelets
essential to the formation of blood cloths, necessary to stop bleeding
plasma
the liquid part of the blood, which carries blood cells and transports nutrients to all tissues
pulse
the wave of blood propelled through the arteries as a result of the contraction of the left ventricle
blood pressure
the force exerted by the blood on the interior walls of the blood vessels
systolic blood pressure
the pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle contracts
diastolic blood pressure
the pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle is at rest
hydrostatic pressure
the blood pressure or force exerted against the inside of vessel walls; the "push" effect that forces fluid out of a capillary
edema
swelling caused by fluid accumulating in the tissues
perfusion
the delivery of oxygen and other nutrients to the cells of all organ systems, which results from the constant adequate circulation of blood through the capillaries
hypoperfusion
the insufficient delivery of oxygen and other nutrients to some of the body's cells and inadequate elimination of carbon dioxide and other wastes that results from inadequate circulation of blood
aerobic metabolism
chemical and physical changes that take place within the cells in the presence of oxygen
anaerobic metabolism
chemical and physical changes that take place within the cells without the presence of oxygen
nervous system
the body system including the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that controls the voluntary and involuntary activity of the human body
central nervous system
the brain and the spinal cord
cerebrum
largest part of the brain, responsible for most conscious and sensory functions, the emotions, and the personality
cerebellum
part of the brain controlling equilibrium and muscle coordination
brainstem
the funnel-shaped inferior part of the brain that controls most automatic functions of the body. It is made up of the pons, the mid-brain, and the medulla, which is the brain's connection to the spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
that portion of the nervous system located outside the brain and spinal cord
endocrine system
a system of ductless glands that produce hormones that regulate body functions
thyroid gland
regulates metabolism, growth and development, and the activity of the nervous system
parathyroid glands
produce a hormone necessary for the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the bones
adrenal glands
secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, postpone muscle fatigue, increase the storage of sugar, control kidney function, and regulate the metabolism of salt and water
gonads
produce the hormones that govern reproduction and sex characteristics
islets of Langerhans
make insulin, which allows glucose to enter cells, and also produce glucagon, a hormone that raises the glucose level in the blood
pituitary gland
considered the "master gland." It regulates growth, the thyroid and parathyroid glands, the pancreas, the gonads, metabolism of fatty acids and some basic proteins, blood sugar reactions, and urinary excretion
integumentary system
the skin
epidermis
the outermost layer of the skin
dermis
the second layer of the skin
subcutaneous layer
a layer of fatty tissue just below the dermis
digestive system
the structures and organs that ingest and carry food so that absorption and waste elimination can occur
stomach
a large, hollow organ is the main organ of the digestive system. The majority of digestion takes place in the stomach, which secretes gastric juices that begin converting ingested foods to a form that can be absorbed and used by the body
pancreas
a flat, solid organ that aids in the digestion of fats, starches, and proteins
liver
the largest solid organ in the abdomen produces bile, which aids in the digestion of fat. It stores sugars until they are needed by the body. It also produces components necessary for immune function, blood clotting, and the production of plasma.
gallbladder
a hollow pouch that is a reservoir for bile. Contractions are stimulated that empty the gallbladder into the small intestine, where bile aids in the digestion of fats
small intestine
receives food from the stomach and secretions from the pancreas and liver. Food is completely broken down into a form that can be used by the body
colon
the parts of food that cannot be absorbed by the body are passed as waste products from the small intestine to the large intestine
kidneys
filter waste from the bloodstream and help control fluid balance
ureters
carry the wastes from the kidneys to the bladder
urinary bladder
stores the urine prior to excretion
urethra
carries the urine from the bladder out of the body
circulatory system
system composed of the heart and blood vessels that brings oxygen and nutrients to and takes wastes away from body cells
reproductive system
the male or female organs that function to accomplish human reproduction, the creation of offspring
urinary system
the organs and structures responsible for filtering and excreting wastes from the blood
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