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history || midterm study set
Terms in this set (71)
Sand Creek Massacre
an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members
battle of the little bighorn
In 1876, Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died
interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
African Americans who moved from post reconstruction South to Kansas.
Settlers who acquired free land from the government
Houses built with blocks of sod. Typically small and commonly found in the sides of hills in the midwest
shipping stations along the new railroad
camps of miners full of crime. There were few laws, and the people in the camps carried out their own type of justice.
pacific railroad act
Helped fund the construction of the Union Pacific transcontinental railroad with the use of land grants and government bonds.
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
Edwin L. Drake established the first oil well in 1859 in Titusville Pennsylvania. The demand grew and more oil fields quickly sprang up. By the 1870's, oil was the fourth largest export in the country
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
A group of corporations run by a single board of directors
a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller.
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
American inventor of the Pullman sleeping car and founder of Pullman, Illinois
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy
immigrants who had come to the US after the 1880s from southern and eastern europe
Transportation system designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes
very tall buildings
efforts to restrict child labor and improve working conditions for people in the early to mid 1800s
A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers
He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."
Poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
Arts and Recreation
A famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. His artwork was primarily based on political corruption. He helped people realize the corruption of some politicians
Leaders of political machines that bribed citizens in order to receive votes
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
aimed to restore economic opportunities and correct injustices in American life
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
March 1911 fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers
A monetary system in which paper money and coins are equal to the value of a certain amount of gold
the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite
the right of women to vote
1913- gave the right to tax people's income; more you make, the more you're taxed.
17th Ammendment (1913)
established direct election of the senators by pop vote
18th Ammendment (1919)
19th Amendment (1920)
Gave women the right to vote
20th Amendment (1933)
Procedures for outgoing president and the new president coming in
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests
Legally adding land area to a city in the United States
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.
William Randolph Hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow (sensationalist) journalism."
led the fight for Cuba's independence from Spain from 1895 through the Spanish-American War
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
U.S. Battleship that exploded in Havana Harbor in 1898; Evidence suggests an internal explosion, however Spanish military was framed by Yellow Journalism; The incident was a catalyst for the Spanish American War
Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuba and gave the U.S. control of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
The Trench Warefare
a type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other.
Battle of the Somme
A 1916 WWI (1914-1918) battle between German and British forces. Ending in a stalemate, the bitter three-month conflict is notable for the high number of casualties- 1.25 million men killed or wounded - and the first use of tanks in warfare.
westward migration of workers (new economic opportunities, esp. aircraft industry), high rates of divorce and family/juvenile violence, women encouraged to work in factories, still held inferior to men
1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile
German submarines used in World War I
world war |
Fourteen Points (1918)
A statement given on January 8, 1918 by Wilson declaring that WW I was being fought for a moral cause and calling for postwar peace in Europe. The speech laid out a policy of free trade, open agreements, democracy and self-determination. Point 14 advocated for the League of Nations to be established that would keep world peace. Most of these points would not be realized, and the US would fail to join the League of Nations. However, it served as a model for the more successful Atlantic Charter after WWII
how did the federal government shape westward expansion?
The Federal government responded with measures (Homestead Act, transcontinental railroad) and military campaigns designed to encourage settlement, solidify Union control of the trans-Mississippi West, and further marginalize the physical and cultural presence of tribes native to the West.
how did the technologies of the late 19th century change society?
They were both "motive powers": steam and electricity. According to some, the development and application of steam engines and electricity to various tasks such as transportation and the telegraph, affected human life by increasing and multiplying the mechanical power of human or animal strength or the power of simple tools.
how did immigration change in the late 19th/early 20th century?
how did the urban environment change in the late 19th/early 20th century?
what were the aims of the progressive movement? describe their successes and failures
analyze the significance of the spanish american war
during world war | what was the impact on american society?
America's involvement in World War II had a significant impact on the economy and workforce of the United States. American factories were retooled to produce goods to support the war effort and almost overnight the unemployment rate dropped to around 10%.
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