Terms in this set (80)
You are transporting a stable patient with a possible pneumothorax. The patient is receiving high-flow oxygen and has an oxygen saturation of 95%. During your reassessment, you find that the patient is now confused, hypotensive, and profusely diaphoretic. What is MOST likely causing this patient's deterioration?
When assessing a patient with a hemothorax, you will MOST likely find:signs and symptoms of shock.If a person's tidal volume decreases, but his or her respiratory rate remains unchanged:minute volume will decrease.The pliability of the pediatric rib cage _______.increases the risk of internal injuryCommon signs and symptoms of a chest injury include all of the following, EXCEPT:hematemesis.A rapid, irregular pulse following blunt trauma to the chest is MOST suggestive of a:myocardial contusion.Patients with rib fractures will commonly:breathe rapidly and shallowlyThe treatment for relieving a tension pneumothorax involves:inserting a needle through the rib cage into the pleural spaceDistended jugular veins, narrowing pulse pressure, and muffled heart tones are collectively known as _______.Beck's triadThe esophagus, trachea, and great vessels reside in the _______.mediastinumHemoptysis indicates damage to the _______.lungsThe MOST important immediate treatment for patients with a head injury, regardless of severity, is to:establish an adequate airway.A high school football player was injured during a tackle and complains of neck and upper back pain. He is conscious and alert and is breathing without difficulty. The EMT should:leave his helmet and shoulder pads in place.When placing a patient onto a long backboard, the EMT at the patient's _________ is in charge of all patient movements.headWhich of the following statements regarding cervical collars is correct?A cervical collar is used in addition to, not instead of, manual immobilization.A patient who cannot remember the events that preceded his or her head injury is experiencing:retrograde amnesia.When caring for a patient with a possible head injury, it is MOST important to monitor the patient's:level of consciousness.When controlling bleeding from a scalp laceration with a suspected underlying skull fracture, you should:avoid excessive pressure when applying the bandage.Following a head injury, a 20-year-old female opens her eyes spontaneously, is confused, and obeys your commands to move her extremities. You should assign her a GCS score of:14.The cervical spine is composed of _____ vertebrae.7Lacerations to the scalp:may be an indicator of deeper, more serious injuries.During your primary assessment of a semiconscious 30-year-old female with closed head trauma, you note that she has slow, irregular breathing and a slow, bounding pulse. As your partner maintains manual in-line stabilization of her head, you should:instruct him to assist her ventilations while you perform a rapid assessment.When opening the airway of a patient with a suspected spinal injury, you should use the:jaw-thrust maneuver.When immobilizing a child on a long backboard, you should:place padding under the child's shoulders as needed.You are assessing a man who has a head injury and note that cerebrospinal fluid is leaking from his ear. You should recognize that this patient is at risk for:bacterial meningitis.Which of the following statements regarding the cranium is correct?Eighty percent of the cranium is occupied by brain tissue.The body's functions that occur without conscious effort are regulated by the _________ nervous system.autonomicWhich of the following skull fractures would be the LEAST likely to present with palpable deformity or other outward signs?LinearWhen assessing a conscious patient with an MOI that suggests spinal injury, you should:determine if the strength in all extremities is equal.The _________ nervous system consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves.peripheralCoordination of balance and body movement is controlled by the:cerebelluma 39 year old male accidently cut his wirst while sharpening his hunting knife. he is conscious and alert with adequate breathing. but is bleeding significantly from the wound you shouldcontrol the bleeding with direct pressurewhen encountering a suspected bleeding emergency, the most pertinent finding during the SAMPLE history phase of assessment would be thatthe patient states that she takes blood thinner medicationsa fractured femur can result in the loss of ___ or more of blood into soft tissues of the thihg1 Lafter applying a pressure dressing to a laceration on teh patients arm, you notice that blood is slowly beginning to saturate it. you shouldplace additional dressings over the wounda 48 year old male suspected open book pelvic fracture he is conscious but restless, and his skin is pale and diaphoretic. his respirations are 22 breaths/min and his pulse rate is 120 beats/min. there is no external bleeidng noted the emt shouldapply a compresion device around his pelvisa 22 year old male was kicked in the abdomen multiple times during an assault. he is conscious but restless and his pulse is rapid. your assessment reveals a large are of bruising to the right upper quadrant of his abdomen. the mos appropriate treatment for this patient includespreparing for immediate transportwhich of the following organs/body systems cannot tolerate lack of blood flow for more than a few minutesthe heart and brainwhich of the following conditions might an EMT suspect as a possible cause for bleeding from the nose and mouthall; skull fracture, high blood pressure, sinus infectionhypoperfusion is another name forshockbleeding from the nose following head traumais a sign of a skull fracture and should not be stoppedwhen using a stick and square knot as a tourniquet to control severe bleeding from an amputated arm the emt shouldstop twisting the stick when the bleeding stopshypoglycemic shock occurs whenthe body cannot compensate for rapid fluid losswhat is the approximate blood volume of an 80 kg adult male5.60 Lwhich part of the cardiovascular system is considered a "container"?the blood vesselsin which of the following situations would external bleeding be the most difficult to controlfemoral artery and a blood pressure of 140/90which of the following statements regarding the clotting of blood is correct?a person taking blood thinners will experience slower clottingduring transport a 40 year old female with acute abdominal pain, you note that she has stopped talking to you and has become extremely diaphoretic you shouldrepeat the primary assessmentyou arrive at the home of a 50 year old female with severe epistaxis as you are treating her, it is most important to recall thatthe patient is at risk for vomiting and aspirationswhich of the following is a term for vomited bloodhematemesisperfusion is most accurately defined as thecirculation of blood within an organ in adequate amounts to meet the organ's metabolic needWhen assessing the interior of a crashed motor vehicle for damage, you are gathering information regarding the: a. index of suspicion. b. mechanism of injury. c. kinetic energy. d. potential energyb. mechanism of injury.Passengers who are seated in the rear of a vehicle and are wearing only lap belts have a higher incidence of injuries to the _____________ spine during a rear-end crash. a. thoracic and sacral b. lumbar and coccygeal c. thoracic and lumbar d. lumbar and sacralc. thoracic and lumbarThe energy of a moving object is called: a. latent energy. b. kinetic energy. c. potential energy. d. converted energy.b. kinetic energy.During your assessment of a patient with a head injury, you note that he opens his eyes when you pinch his trapezius muscle, is mumbling, and has his arms curled in toward his chest. You should assign him a GCS score of: a. 7. b. 8. c. 9. d. 10.a. 7.A small compact car was involved in a rollover crash. As you are approaching the vehicle, you note that the roof is significantly collapsed. The patient, a 29-year-old male, is complaining of severe pain in his neck and to the top of his head as well as numbness and tingling in his extremities. Witnesses who removed the patient from the vehicle state that he was wearing his seatbelt. What injury mechanism is MOST likely responsible for this patient's condition? a. Compression of the head against the roof b. Lateral bending of the neck during the crash c. Impact of the head against the steering wheel d. Whiplash injury to the neck during the rollovera. Compression of the head against the roofTwo of the MOST common mechanisms of injury for blunt trauma are: a. falls and motor vehicle collisions. b. low-caliber gunshot wounds and falls. c. gunshot wounds and vehicle ejections. d. motor vehicle collisions and stabbingsa. falls and motor vehicle collisions.When a driver is in a car equipped with an air bag, but is not wearing a seatbelt, he or she will MOST likely strike the __________ when the air bag deploys upon impact. a. door b. dashboard c. windshield d. steering wheela. doorThe driver of a sport utility vehicle lost control and struck a utility pole head-on. The driver was killed instantly. The passenger, a young female, is conscious and alert and has several small abrasions and lacerations to her left forearm. Treatment for the passenger should include: a. transport to a trauma center. b. a focused exam of her forearm. c. transport to a community hospital. d. a secondary assessment at the scene.a. transport to a trauma center.Evaluation of the interior of a crashed motor vehicle during extrication will allow the EMT to: a. determine the vehicle's speed at the time of impact. b. assess the severity of the third collision of the crash. c. recognize if the driver hit the brakes before impact. d. identify contact points and predict potential injuries.d. identify contact points and predict potential injuries.While assessing a young male who was struck in the chest with a steel pipe, you note that his pulse is rapid and irregular. You should be MOST suspicious for: a. underlying cardiac disease. b. a lacerated coronary artery. c. bruising of the heart muscle. d. traumatic rupture of the aorta.c. bruising of the heart muscle.A 30-year-old male sustained a stab wound to the neck when he was attacked outside a nightclub. During your assessment, you should be MOST alert for: a. injury to the cervical spine. b. potential airway compromise. c. damage to internal structures. d. alterations in his mental status.b. potential airway compromise.Which of the following statements regarding low-energy penetrating injuries is correct? a. Internal injuries caused by low-velocity bullets are usually easy to predict. b. Exit wounds are typically easy to locate with low-energy penetrating injuries. c. It is usually easy to differentiate between an entrance wound and an exit wound. d. The area of injury is usually close to the path the object took through the body.d. The area of injury is usually close to the path the object took through the body.Which of the following patients has experienced the MOST significant fall? a. a 4′8″ patient who fell 12 feet b. a 5′0″ patient who fell 13 feet c. a 4′6″ patient who fell 13 feet d. a 5′9″ patient who fell 14 feetc. a 4′6″ patient who fell 13 feetWhen treating a patient who experienced a pulmonary blast injury, you should: a. use a demand valve to ventilate the patient. b. suspect an accompanying cardiac tamponade. c. avoid giving oxygen under positive pressure. d. administer large amounts of intravenous fluid.c. avoid giving oxygen under positive pressure.When evaluating the mechanism of injury of a car-versus-pedestrian collision, you should first: a. determine if the patient was propelled away from the vehicle. b. approximate the speed of the vehicle that struck the pedestrian. c. evaluate the vehicle that struck the patient for structural damage. d. determine if the patient was struck and pulled under the vehicle.b. approximate the speed of the vehicle that struck the pedestrian.Factors that should be considered when assessing a patient who has fallen include all of the following, EXCEPT: a. the speed of the fall. b. the surface struck. c. the height of the fall. d. the primary impact point.a. the speed of the fall.In contrast to a Level III trauma center, a Level I trauma center must: a. be involved in trauma prevention programs. b. have general surgeons who are in-house 24 hours a day. c. have access to an emergency physician within 30 minutes. d. be able to stabilize patients before transferring to a higher level facility.b. have general surgeons who are in-house 24 hours a day.Internal injuries caused by gunshot wounds are difficult to predict because: a. the caliber of the bullet is frequently unknown. b. the area of damage is usually smaller than the bullet. c. the bullet may tumble or ricochet within the body. d. exit wounds caused by the bullet are usually small.c. the bullet may tumble or ricochet within the body.Which of the following statements regarding the first collision that occurs during a motor vehicle crash is correct? a. It provides the least amount of information about the mechanism of injury. b. It has a direct effect on patient care because of the obvious vehicular damage. c. It is the most dramatic part of the collision and may make extrication difficult. d. It occurs when the unrestrained occupant collides with the interior of the vehicle.c. It is the most dramatic part of the collision and may make extrication difficult.If a person is standing near a building that explodes, which of the following injuries would he or she MOST likely experience as a result of the pressure wave? a. Severe burns b. Fractured bones c. Stomach rupture d. Impaled objectsc. Stomach rupture
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