38 terms

Unit 7 Quiz

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DNA
The genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents; a double-stranded helical macromolecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (c), guanine (g), and thymine (t).
nucleotide
An organic monomer consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. They are the building blocks of nucleic acids.
Polynucleotide
A polymer made up of many nucleotides covalently bonded together.
sugar-phosphate backbone
The alternating chain of sugar and phosphate to which the DNA and RNA nitrogenous bases are attached.
adenine
A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. Goes with Thymine.
guanine
A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. Goes with Cytosine.
Cytosine
A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. Goes with Guanine.
Thymine
A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. Goes with Adenine.
Purine
One of the two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Adenine (A) and Guanine (G) are purines.
pyrimidine
Of of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Cytosine (C), thymine (T), and Uracil (U) are pyrimidines.
Semi-conservative replication
The mode by which DNA replicates. Each strand acts as a template for a new double helix. The established model of DNA replication in which each double-stranded molecule is composed of one parental strand and one newly polymerized strand.
DNA polymerase
An enzyme that assembles DNA nucleotides into polynucleotides using a preexisting strand of DNA as a template
DNA ligase
An enzyme, essential for DNA replication, that catalyzes the covalent bonding of adjacent DNA nucleotides; used in genetic engineering to paste a specific piece of DNA containing a gene of interest into a bacterial plasmid or other vector.
Watson and Crick
Compiled other scientists findings to confirm that DNA was is the shape of a double helix.
Griffiths
Added disease-causing bacteria mixed with live nonpathogenic bacteria (bacteria that didn't cause disease) transforms harmless to harmful bacteria (disease-causing)
A. Hershey and M. Chase
They knew that viruses were protein and DNA, but didn't know which was the genetic material. So they used a centrifuge to separate by density. Wanted the bacteria to fall to the bottom of the tube. Found that DNA was the genetic material.
R. Franklin
Produced an X-ray crystallographic photograph of DNA that helped Watson and Crick put together the shape of DNA (a double helix)
RNA Polymerase
An enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription, using a DNA strand as a template.
Promoter
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA, located at the start of a gene, that is the binding site for RNA polymerase and the place where transcription begins.
Terminator
A specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene; it signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene.
mRNA
The type of RNA that encodes genetic information from DNA and conveys it to ribosomes, where the information is translated into amino acid sequences.
RNA Splicing
The removal of introns and joining of exons in a eukaryotic RNA, forming an mRNA molecule with a continuous coding sequence; occurs before mRNA leaves the nucleus.
Introns
In eukaryotes, a non-expressed (noncoding) portion of a gene that is excised from the RNA transcript.
Exons
In eukaryotes, a coding portion of a gene.
Genetic Code
The set of rules giving the correspondence between nucleotide triplets (codons) in mRNA and amino acids in protein.
codon
nucleotide triplets
tRNA
A type of ribonucleic acid that functions as an interpreter in translation. Each tRNA molecule has a specific anticodon, picks up a specific amino acid, and conveys the amino acid to the appropriate codon on mRNA.
Anticodon
On a tRNA molecule, a specific sequence of three nucleotides that is complementary to a condon triplet on a mRNA.
Ribosome
A cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein organixed into two subunits and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. The ribosomal subunits are constructed in the nucleolus.
rRNA
Determination of the Nucleotide sequence of ribosomal RNA molecules.
Peptide Bond
The covalent linkage between two amino acid units in a polypeptide; formed by dehydration synthesis.
Mutations
A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA; the ultimate source of genetic diversity.
Reading Frame
The way in which a cell's mRNA-translating machinery groups of the mRNA nucleotides into codons.
mutagenesis
The creation of a mutation
mutagen
a Chemical pr physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
Point Mutation
the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of the genetic material
substitution mutation
One base is substituted for another.
Frame shift mutation
one base is inserted or deleted.