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60 terms

Ch. 7 Respiratory System

HELL
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anoxia
the absence of oxygen from the body's gases, blood, or tissues. If it occurs for more that 4-6 mins, irreversible brain damage can occur
anthracosis
AKA coal miner's penumonoconiosis or black lung disease, is caused by coal dust in the lungs.
antitussive
AKA cough medicine, is administered to prevent or relieve coughing.
aphonia
The loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds.
apnea
The absence of spontaneous respiration. Opposite of eupnea!
asbestosis
Caused by asbestos particles in the lungs and usually occurs after working with asbestos.
asphyxia
the condition that occurs when the body cannot get the air it needs to function. In life threatening condition, oxygen levels in blood drop quickly, carbon dioxide levels rise, and unless the patient's breathing is restored within minutes, death or serious brain damage follows.
asphyxiation
AKA suffocation, is any interruption of normal breathing resulting in asphyxia. It can be caused by an airway obstruction, drowning, smothering, choking, or inhaling gases such as carbon monoxide instead of air.
aspiration pneumonia
can occur when a foreign substance, such as vomit, is inhaled into the lungs
asthma
A chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing.
atelectasis
is the collapse of part or all of a lung by blockage of the air passages or by very shallow breathing
bradypnea
An abnormally slow rate of respiration usually of less than ten breaths per minute.
bronchodilator
A medication that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs. At the first sign of an asthma attack, the patient uses a metered dose inhale to self administer the medication.
bronchorrhea
An excessive discharge of mucous from the bronchi
bronchoscopy
the visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope.
bronchospasm
A contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze the airway shut.
Cheyne-Stokes Respiration
ROCK AND ROLLLL
A pattern of alternating periods of hypopnea or apnea, followed by hyperpnea
croup
An acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough
cystic fibrosis
A genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormallythick mucus.
diphtheria
Now largely prevented through immunization, its an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract. The bacteria produce toxins that can damage the heart muscle and peripheral nerves.
dysphonia
Any change in vocal quality, including hoarseness, weakness, or the cracking of a boy's voice during puberty.
dyspnea
AKA shortness of breath, is difficult or labored breathing. Shortness of breath is frequently one of the first symptoms of heartfailure....YEAH
emphysema
the progressive loss of lung function that is characterized by
1) a decrease in the total number of alveoli
2)the enlargement of the remaining alveoli
3) the progressive destruction of the walls of the remaining alveoli
empyema
a collection of pus in a body cavity (especially in the lung cavity)
endotracheal intubation
The massage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway.
epistaxis
AKA nosebleed, is the bleeding from the nose that is usually caused by an injury, excessive use of blood thinners, or bleeding disorders.
hemoptysis
Coughing up of blood or bloodstained sputnum derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes as the result of a pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage.
hemothorax
A collection of blood in the pleural cavity. Often results from chest trauma, ex stab wound, or it can be caused by disease or surgery.
hypercapnia
The abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperpnea
Commonly associated with exertion, is breathing that is deeper and more rapid than is at normal rest.
hypopnea
is shallow or slow respiration.
hypoxemia
A condition of having below normal O2 levels in the blood. Less severe than anoxia
hypoxia
The condtion of having below normal O2 levels in the body tissues and cells, it is less severe than anoxia.
laryngectomy
the surgical removal of the larynx
laryngitis
The inflammation of the larynx
laryngoplegia
paralysis of the larynx! OH MY
laryngoscopy
The visual examination of the larynx using a laryngoscope inserted through the mouth and placed into the pharynx to examine the larynx.
mediastinum
The part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus
nebulizer
AKA atomizer, pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which is then in haled by the patient with a face mask or mouth piece
otolaryngologist
AKA ENT, is a physician with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, throat, and related structures of the head and neck.
pertussis
AKA whooping cough, a contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by recurrent bouts of a paroxysmal cough, followed by breathlessness, and a noisy inspiration.
pharyngitis
AKA sore thorat, is the inflammation of the pharynx
pharyngoplasty
The surgical repair of the pharynx
pleurectomy
the surgical removal of part of the pleura
pleurisy
AKA, pleuritis, an inflammation of the pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath. Can be caused by influenza or by damage to the lung beneath the pleura.
pleurodynia
Pain in the pleura that occurs in relation to breathing movements.
pneumoconiosis
is fibrosis of the lung tissues caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after prolonged environmental or occupational contact.
pneumonectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of a lung.
pneumothorax
the accumulation of air in the pleural space causing a pressure imbalance that prevents the lung from fully expanding or can cause it to collapse. This can have an external cause such as a stab wound through the chest wall, or caused by internally by a rupture in the pleura that allows air to leak into the pleural space.
polysomnography
AKA sleep apnea study, measures physiological activity during sleep and is most often performed to detect nocturnal defects in breathing associated with sleep apnea.
pulmonologist
A phsyician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the lungs and associated tissues.
pulse oximeter
An external monitor placed on the patient's finger or learlobe to measure the O2 saturation level in the blood.
pyothorax
The presence of pus in the pleural cavity between the layers of the pleural membrane. AKA empyema of the pleural cavity
sinusitis
An inflammation of the sinuses.
tachypnea
an abnormally rapid rate of respiration usually of more than twenty breaths per minute.
thoracentesis
insertion of a needle into the pleural cavity to withdraw fluid for diagnostic purposes, to drain excess fluid, or to re-expand a collapsed lung
thoracostomy
surgical incision into the chest wall and insertion of a chest tube
tracheostomy
The creatino of a stoma into the trachea and inserting a tube to facilitate the passage of air or removal of the secretions. Placement of this tube can be temperary or permanent.
tracheotomy
is usually an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain acess to the airway below a blockage.
tuberculosis
Infection disease caused by Mytobacterium tuberculosis, usually attacks the lungs, but can affect other body parts. Occurs most commonly in idivids whose immune systems are weakened