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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Terms in this set (43)
A new era of thought and feeling. Europe and its institutions were changed from their forms in the Middle Ages. High culture, literature, the arts, education, and morals were changed.
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
"Rebirth" of art, culture, and intellect that started in Italy
Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
"Father of Humanism." studied classical Greek and Latin. Famous for his "Letters to Laura."
(1313-1375) Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society. (Not so religious)
Wrote the "Oration on the Dignity of Man" - considered the "Manifesto" of the Renaissance because it focused on the power and ingenuity of humans.
Discovered through research and looking at the ancient texts that the "Donation of Constantine" - which gave the pope's their power over Europe, was a fake and a forgery. This weakened the church, but proved the awesomeness of the human mind.
1469-1527. Italian political theorist whose book The Prince (1513) describes the achievement and maintenance of power by a determined ruler indifferent to moral considerations.
1478-1529, Baldassare - Humanist and Papal diplomat. Wrote The Book of the Courtierwith rules of gentlemanly behavior. Should know Greek, Latin, have fluent writing style in both classical and vernacular. Important advocate of humanistic education and stressed study of classics and literature.
Christine de Pisan
An educated, privelaged, humanistic woman who wrote poetry and "The Treasure of the City of Ladies." This brought on a debate about the role of women in society.
Isabella de Este
A woman who exercised power which was out of the norm. She was born into the ruling family of a city-state and married the ruler of another city-state. She brought many Renaissance artists to her court and built a famous art collection. She was also skilled in politics and when her husband was taken captive in war, she defended him and won his release. She even ruled for a bit while he was gone.
Written by Niccolo Machiavelli, described that power is more important, "better to be feared than loved"
Everyday language of ordinary people/ a specific place.
A durable method of painting on a wall by using watercolors on wet plaster.
Characteristics of Renaissance Art
A Renaissance writer who wrote the Divine Comedy in his native language - "perfected" Italian.
France's most popular Renaissance author. Rejected the Middle Age's focus on the afterlife and believed that people should enjoy life to the fullest. Wrote a lot of satire that made him popular. Embodied humanism.
(1564 - 1616) English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet. His works embodied humanism through emotion, realism, and themes that everyone could understand.
(1533-1592) The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay. Was very popular because of his emphasis on the classics, which people could read summaries of in his essays. Embodied humanism.
1452-1498 Franciscan friar in Florence who objected to many of the new attitudes in the Renaissance - saw them as satanical. Gained power in Florence in 1494 at a time of Medici weakness and used strict, puritanical rule. Overthrown in 1498 and burned at stake. Medici returned to power but great age of Florence had passed.
An Italian city-state and leading cultural center during the Renaissance.
An Italian city-state during, before, and after the Renaissance period. It specialized in long-distance trade and the production of glass and had an oligarchic republic.
An Italian city-state during, before, and after the Renaissance period. It had a dictatorship and specialized in the production of armor. It allied with France in 1494 against Florence and Venice.
A kingdom in southern Italy controlled by the Hapsburgs (through Spain). Mainly excluded from the Renaissance as they focused on agriculture.
A group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. During the Renaissance = an area of wealth and power.
Treaty of Lodi
This created an alliance in Italy between Milan, Naples, and Florence vs. the Papal States and Venice. It was is in effect from 1454 and 1494.
Cosimo de Medici
(1389-1464) The first semi-stable ruler of Florence, he controlled the government with his considerable wealth through the Medici Bank, the first international bank that funded the Papal States and many large European financial centers. This considerable private wealth enabled him to become a patron of the arts and a customer of many famous artists.
Lorenzo de Medici
Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492)
Piero de Medici
Florentine ruler, but a weak one. Tried to placate the French King by handing over Pisa and other Florentine possessions, but eventually left town. He was succeeded by Savonarola, who "saved" Florence for a time.
A ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan.
Duke; a ruler of the Republic of Venice, Italy. Elected.
Why did the Renaissance Begin in Italy?
Italy had been the center of the Roman Empire. Ruins and art surrounded the Italians and reminded them of the past. They became interested in Greek and Roman art and tried to make their own art as good. Italian cities became very wealthy which enabled them to pay painters, sculptors, and other artists to produce new works. Finally, because the region was divided into small city-states, they competed with each other to produce works that increased the fame of each city-state.
Branches of knowledge concerned with human beings and their culture: philosophy, literature, and the fine arts, as distinguished from the sciences.
A mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface. The system originated in Florence, Italy in the early 1400s.
First moveable type in Europe by Johann Gutenberg. Led to increased literacy, writing in vernacular, takes power from the Church monopoly on literacy (monks).
1452-1519, The true Renaissance man, a painter, engineer, scientist, inventor and sculptor. Most famous for the Mona Lisa, great facial expressions, Ginerva de' Benchi, Madonna of the Rocks, and the Last Supper.
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
1401-1428 Florentine artist, first to start using light and shade to help achieve perspective. Also developed linear perspective. First shown in The Tribute Money. Influence on other artists of the Renaissance.
(1276-1337) Florentine Painter who led the way in the use of realism; sometimes called the "father of renaissance painting."
Created new architecture based on Roman classical buildings, designed church of San Lorenzo in Florence that does not overwhelm the worshiper, but offers a space to fit human needs.
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