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Ventricular contraction phase of the cardiac cycle


Ventricular relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle, dilation state of the heart, the rest between systoles


Upper chamber of the heart


the two lower chambers of the heart, and they pump blood out to the lungs and body (thick walled chambers)

4 Chambers

The heart has ________? Which are: Right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle


Blood leaves the heart through the _________?


Blood returns to the heart through the _______?

Systematic Circulation

(General Circulation) carries blood from the heart and throughout all parts of the body

Pulmonary Circulation

(Cardiopulmonary Circulation) Carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart

Apex of the heart

(Conical tip) lies on the diaphragm and points to the left of the body. It is here where the heartbeat is most easily felt and heard through the stethoscope.

Cardiac Output

Total volume of blood ejected from the heart per minute
Stroke volume X Heart Rate = Cardiac Output
60 ml X 80= 4,800 ml/min

Pericardium (Epicardium)

Covering of the heart, loose fitting double layer sac that encloses the heart

Serous Fluid

(pericardial fluid) Fluid between the parietal pericardium and visceral pericardium which prevents friction as the heart beats


Middle layer of the heart, made of cardiac muscle, Contains the septum (thick muscular wall that completely seperates the blood on the right side from blood on the left side of the heart)


Smooth inner lining, permits blood to move easily through the heart without agglutinating (Clumping)

Pump during working phase of the heart cycle

Right Ventricle pumps blood into the lungs
Left Ventricle pumps blood to the tissues of the body

Vena Cava

large venious blood vessels which bring deoxygenated blood to the right atrium from all parts of the body

Coronary Sinus

(a trough in the posterior wall) that collects blood in the right atrium

Pulmonary artery

Takes blood away from the right ventricle to the lungs for oxygen

Pulmonary veins

bring oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium


takes blood away from the left ventricle to the rest of the body

Heart Blood Flow

The heart has 4 valves which permit the blood flow in one direction only, these valves open and close during the contraction of the heart, preventing the blood from flowing backwards


________ Valves are located between the atria and the ventricles.

Tricuspid Valve

positioned between the right atrium and right ventricle

Chordae Tendinae

small fibrous strands connecting the edges of the tricuspid valve to the papillary muscle that are projections of the myocardium


(mitral valve) located between left atrium and the left ventricle

Semilunar Valves

are located at the bases of large vessels that carry blood from the ventricles

Heart Sounds

Lubb dupp sounds- sounds made by the valves during the cardiac cycle


1st heart sound (S1) Sound made when the tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral) AV valve closes between the atria and ventricles (systole)


2nd heart sound (S2) Cause by the semilunar valves in the aorta and the pulmonary arteries closing (diastole)

Left Atrium

Recieves oxygenated blood from pulmonary veins

Serous Fluid

(Pericardial Fluid) Fluid between the parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium which prevents friction as the heart beats.

Right Atrium

Receives deoxygenated blood from systemic veins



Sinoatrial Noda (SA Node)

Pacemaker of the heart

Heart Conduction Sequence

SA Node, AV Node, AV Bundle, Bundle Branches, Purkinje fibers, contraction of myocardium


Irregular Heart beat








Hold Back






Record Of


Records electrical activity of the heart (ECG or EKG)


Slow heart rate less than 60 BPM


Fast heart rate more than 100 BPM

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