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steep U-shaped valleys that connect to the sea and that filled with seawater after the glaciers melt


hills or very low mountains that may also contain mesas and high plateaus


central plateau of Spain

Massif Central



partially decayed plant matter found in bogs

North Atlantic Drift

a current of warm water from the tropics


a cold, dry wind from the north


a hot, steady south wind that blows from North Africa across the Mediterranean Sea into Southern Europe


earthen banks


land that is reclaimed by diking and draining


structures that are used to control the sea's destructive impact on human life


those seaworks include dikes and high earthen platforms

Zuider Zee

an arm of the north sea that is now a freshwater lake


another name for Zuider Zee


a political unit made up of a city and its surrounding lands


a government in which citizens elect representatives to rule in their name


a series of wars to take Palestine from the Muslims


began in the Italian city-states, was a time of renewed intrest in learning and the arts that lasted from the 14th through 16th centuries


structures that carry water for long distances


Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg


a period when many Christians broke away from the Catholic Church and started Protestant churches


political system in which powerful lords owned most of the land


the belief that people should be loyal to their nation, the people with whom they share land, culture, and history


a program of mass murder of European Jews and othe minorities.

Nordic countries

Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden


a representative lawmaking body whose members are elected or appointed

Silicon Glen

The section of Scotland between Glasgow and Edinburgh has many high-tech companies (which use silicon computer chips)


a common currency that people have mixed feelings baout adopting in the EU

cultural crossroads

a place where various cultures cross paths


refers to a process of a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units

satellite nations

nations dominated by another country

market economy

industrie make the goods consumers want to buy

folk art

produced by rural people with traditional lifestyles instead of by professional artists


discrimination against Jewish people

Slobodan Milosevic

Serbian leader that tried to increase Serbia's power over the rest of Yugoslavia.

South Slavs

Slavic people migrated from Poland to Russia and settled in the Balkan Peninsula in the 500s

ethnic cleansing

The policy of trying to eliminate an ethnic group through violence

Vojislav Kostunica

In 2000, the Yougoslav people elected a reform leader as president


a deadly poison

European Enviornmental Agency

provides the EU with reliable information about the enviornment


very small particles of liquid or solid matter


a brown haze that occurs when the gases released by burning fossil fuels react with sunlight to create hundreds of harmful chemicals


a form of oxygen that causes health problems

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