Summer English Vocab Lawrence
Terms in this set (33)
word choice intended to convey a certain effect
Figurative language/ figures of speech
words or phrases that describe one thing in terms of something else. They always involve
some sort of imaginative comparison between seemingly unlikely things. Not meant to be taken literally, _____ _____ is used to produce images in a reader's mind and to express ideas in fresh, vivid, and imaginative ways.
The most common examples of ______ used in both prose and poetry, are
simile, metaphor, and personification.
the reference, often as a comparison, to a mythological, literary, or historical place, or thing. Ex. "He
met his Waterloo"
a deliberate, extravagant, and often outrageous exaggeration. Ex. " The shot heard 'round the
world." It may be used for wither serious or comic effect.
occurs when a speaker says on thing while meaning the opposite. An example of a this occurs in the statement, "It is easy to stop smoking, and I've done it many times."
occurs when a situation turns out differently from what one would normally expect -
though often the twist is oddly appropriate. Ex. "A deep sea driver is drowning in a bathtub."
occurs when a character or speaker says or does something that has different
meanings from what he or she thinks it means, though the audience and other characters
understand the full implications of the speech or action. Ex. "Oedipus curses the murderer of
Latius, not realizing that he is himself the murderer and so is cursing himself."
a comparison of two unlike things not using "like" or "as". Ex. "Time is money."
a kind of metaphor that gives inanimate objects or abstract ideas human characteristics. Ex.
"The wind cried in the dark"
any object, person, place, or action that has both a meaning in itself and that stands for something
larger that itself, such as quality, attitude, belief, or value. Ex. "the land turtle in Steinbeck's The Grapes of
Wrath suggests or reflects the toughness and resilience of migrant workers.
the opposite of hyperbole. It is a kind of irony that deliberately represents something as
being much less that it really is. Ex. "I could probably manage to survive on a salary of two million dollars a
a comparison of two different things or ideas through the use of the words "like" or "as". It is definitely
stated comparison in which the poet says one thing is like another. Ex. "The warrior fought like a lion."
the words or phrases a writer uses to represent persons, objects, actions, feelings, and ideas
descriptively by appealing to the senses
the atmosphere that pervades a literary work with the intention of evoking a certain emotion or feeling from
the audience. In poetry and prose, this may be created by a combination of. The ____s evoked by the more
popular short stories of Edgar Allen Poe, for example, tend to be gloomy, horrific, and desperate.
techniques that convey meaning through sound. Some examples of these are rhyme,
consonance, alliteration, and onomatopoeia. (The following are literary devices associated with sound.)
the practice of beginning several consecutive or neighboring words with the same consonant
sound. Ex. "The twisted trout twinkled below"
the repetition of vowel sounds to create internal rhyming within phrases or sentences, and
together with alliteration and consonance serves as one of the building blocks of verse.
a poetic device characterized by the repetition of the same consonant two or more times in
short succession, as in "pitter patter" or in "all mammals named Sam are clammy"
the use of words that mimic the sounds they describe. Ex. "hiss", "buzz", and "bang". When
______ is used on an extended scale in a poem, it is called imitative harmony
the repetition of sounds in two or more words or phrases that appear close to each other in a poem.
the framework or organization of a literary selection. For example, the ____ of fiction determined by
plot and by chapter division; the ____ of drama depends upon its division into acts and scenes; the ____
of an essay depends upon the organization of ideas; the _____ of poetry is determined by its rhyme scheme
and stanzaic form.
the use of hints of clues in a narrative to suggest future action.
The arrangement of two or more ideas, characters, actions, settings, phrases, or words side-by-side or in similar narrative moments for the purpose of comparison, contrast, or for rhetorical effect.
a form of paradox that combines a pair of opposite terms into a single unusual expression. Ex.
"sweet sorrow" or "cold fire"
the use of contradiction in a manner that oddly makes sense on a deeper level. Common ones
seem to reveal a deeper truth through their contradictions, such as noting that "without laws, we can have no
freedom." Although the statement may appear illogical, or absurd, it turns out the coherent meaning that
reveals a hidden truth. Ex. "Much madness is divinest sense."
point of view or narrative mode
The point of view or narrative mode is the set of methods the author uses to
convey the plot to the audience. The narrative point-of-view determines the perspective through which the
story is viewed. The narrator may be a person devised by the author as a stand-alone entity, or may even be
a character. The narrator is considered participant if an actual character in the story, and nonparticipant if only
an implied character, or a sort of omniscient or semi-omniscient being who does not take part in the story but
only relates it to the audience. The most common modes are first-person and third-person narration.
first person narrative
the story is relayed by a narrator who is also a character within the story,
so that the narrator reveals the plot by referring to this viewpoint character as "I" (or, when plural,
third person narrative
each and every character is referred to by the narrator as "he", "she", "it",
or "they", but never as "I" or "we" (first-person), or "you" (second-person).
shift or turn
to a change or movement in a piece resulting from an epiphany, realization, or insight gained
by the speaker, a character, or the reader.
the arrangement of words and the order of grammatical elements in a sentence.
the central message of the literary work. It is not the same as a subject, which can be expressed in a
word or two: courage, survival, war, pride, etc. The ____ is the idea that the author wishes to convey about the
subject. It is expressed as a sentence or general statement about life or human nature. A literary work can have
more that one theme, and most themes are not directly stated but are implied. The reader must think about all the
elements of the work and use them to make inferences, or reasonable guesses, as to which the themes seem to
be implied. An example of a theme on the subject of pride might be that pride often precedes a fall.
: the writer's or speaker's attitude towards the subject, character, or audience, and it is conveyed through the
author's choice of words and detail. It can be serious, humorous, sarcastic, indignant, objective, etc.
the literary term used to describe the individual writing style of an author. It is generally
considered to be a combination of a writer's use of syntax, diction, punctuation, character development, dialogue,
etc., within a given body of text (or across several works). Voice can be thought of in terms of the uniqueness of a
vocal voice machine. As a trumpet has a different voice than a tuba or a violin has a different voice than a cello,
so the words of one author have a different sound than the words of another. One author may have a voice that is
light and fast paced while another may have a dark voice.