16 terms

Enlightenment and Revolution

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Scientific Revolution
A major shift in thinking between 1500 and 1700 in which modern science emerged as a new way of gaining knowledge about the natural world
Nicolaus Copernicus
Proposed the heliocentric theory that put the sun in the center of the earth with the planets traveling around the sun.
Galileo
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was forced by the church court known as the Inquisition to swear that the geocentric theory was true
Isaac Newton
Discovered the laws of gravity
microscope, barometer, thermometer, telescope
four "key" inventions of the Scientific Revolution
The Enlightenment
a new age of reason in which people discussed how governments and social institutions could be based upon rational understanding
Thomas Hobbes
Englishman who wrote that human beings are naturally cruel, selfish and Italian astronomer and mathematician who greedy.Believed that there should be absolute (unlimited) rule by king
John Locke
Believed in constitutional monarchy (king's) power is limited by a basic set of laws (constitution)
natural rights
rights that belong to people simply because they are human beings
John Locke
Believed that a government should be overthrown by the people if it fails to protect their rights
Baron de Montesquieu
Famous for the idea of having three branches of government so that no one branch may have too much power "separation of powers"
Voltaire
believed in religious tolerance and freedom of speech
U.S. Bill of Rights
This U.S. document protects freedom of speech and religion as championed by Voltaire.
Abigail Adams
Advised her prominent husband not to forget women when she stated, "Women will not hold ourselves bound to any Laws in which we have no voice."
Olympe de Gouges
Branded a traitor and sent to the guillotine in France for attempting to organize women. Said that women should have the right to vote, hold office, own property, and serve in the military.
Mary Wollstonecraft
Called for reforms (changes) to give women the same education as men.