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Terms in this set (71)

---the safety movement traces its roots to England
--during the industrial revolution, child labor in factories was common
--after an outbreak of fever among children working in their cotton mills, the people of Manchester, England demanded better factory working conditions; public pressure led to the passage of the Health and Morals of Apprentices Act; this marked the beginning of governmental involvement in workplace safety
--employer liability was established in workplace accidents through the Employer's Liability Law; the first recorded safety program was established in Joliet, Illinois after a flywheel exploded at a steel plant; liability is something that goes along with awareness
--Frederick Taylor drew a connection between lost personnel time and management policies and procedures
--workers compensation: (began in Germany); state run, but there is a national worker's comp; the common thread among the various early approaches to workers comp was that they all provided some amount of compensation for on the job injuries regardless of who was at fault; state run, however, there is a national workers comp.; today all 50 states have some form of workers comp.; employers covered by workers comp are subscribers; those not covered are unsubscribers
--Cooperative Safety Congress (CSC): due to the Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers; national conference on safety that planted the seeds for the NSC
--National Council of Industrial Safety (NCIS): changed its name to the National Security Council (NSC) which is now the premier safety organization in the U.S.
--industry in the U.S. arrived at 2 critical conclusions:
----there is a definite connection between quality and safety
----off the job accidents have negative impact on productivity
--an issue in the mid 20th century was that the state generally legislated safety requirements only in specific industries
--Occupational Health and Safety Act (OSH Act) and the Federal Mine Safety Act were passed and represented the most significant legislation to date in the history of the safety movement, especially the OSH Act
--the concept of Total Safety Management (TSM) was introduced to help safety professionals in organizations using Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy; people who enjoy their jobs are less likely to have an incident with loss
--Workplace terrorism became an issue in the early 2000s and special safety needs for the elderly became an issue
--OSHA enforces the integrated approach by requiring companies to have a plan for doing at least the following: providing appropriate medical treatment for injured or ill workers, regularly examining workers who are exposed to toxic substances, and having a qualified first-aid person available during working hours
--Proponent of the integrated approach, H. G. Dyktor, advocated: learn more by sharing knowledge about workplace health problems, particularly those caused by toxic substances; provide a greater level of expertise in evaluating health and safety problems; provide a broad database that can be used to compare health and safety problems experienced by different companies in the same industry; encourage accident prevention; make employee health and safety a high priority
--The health and safety staff in a modern industrial company may include the following positions:
----Industrial hygiene chemist/ engineer: test the work environment and the people who work in it
--Radiation control specialist: typically electrical engineers or physicists; monitor the radiation levels to which workers may be exposed, test workers for levels of exposure, respond to radiation accidents, develop company-wide plans for handling radiation accidents, and implement decontamination procedure when necessary
--Industrial safety engineers or managers: safety and health generalists with specialized education and training; responsible for developing and carrying out the company's overall safety and health program, including accident prevention, accident investigation, and education and training
--accidents cost roughly $150 billion annually in the U.S.; this includes direct and indirect costs of accidents that occur on and off the job
--the leading causes of accidental deaths in the U.S. are motor vehicle accidents, falls, poisoning, drowning, fire-related injuries, suffocation, firearms, medical complications, air transport accidents, machinery-relation injuries, mechanical suffocation, and the impact of falling objects
--the leading causes of death in the U.S. are heart disease, cancer, and stroke; however, among people age 37 and younger, accidents are the leading cause of death
--between 1912 and 1998, the number of accidental work deaths per 100,000 population declined by 81 percent, from 21 to 4
--Roughly 35 million work hours are lost annually as a result of accidents; this is actual time lost from disabling injuries and does not include additional time lost to medical checkups after the injured employee returns to work
--the leading causes of death in work accidents are motor vehicle-related, falls, electric current, drowning, fire-related, air transport related, poisoning, and water transport related
--the leading causes of work injuries are overexertion, impact accidents, falls, bodily reaction, compression, motor vehicle accidents, exposure to radiation or caustics, rubbing or abrasions, and exposure to extreme temperatures
--highest death rate to lowest by industry: mining/quarrying, agriculture, construction, transportation/public utilities, government, manufacturing, services, and trade
--most frequently involved body parts to least: back; legs and fingers; arms and multiple parts of body; trunk; hands; eyes, head, and feet; and neck, toes, and body systems
--the chemicals most frequently involved in chemical burn injuries include acids and alkalies; soaps, detergents, and cleaning compounds; solvents and degreasers; calcium hydroxide; potassium hydroxide; and sulfuric acid
--the most frequent causes of heat burn injuries are flame, molten metal, petroleum, asphalt, steam, and water
--carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an injury to the median nerve in the wrist that typically results from repeated stress placed on the nerve; symptoms of CTS include numbness, a tingling sensation, and pain in the hand and/or wrist
--repetitive strain injury (RSI) is a broad and generic term that encompasses a variety or injuries resulting from cumulative trauma to the soft tissues of the body, including tendons, tendon sheaths, muscles, ligaments, joints, and nerves; such injuries are typically associated with the hands, arms, neck, and shoulders
--accident rates are especially high in developing countries because these countries are responding to the pressures of global competition without first putting a safety and health infrastructure in place (for example, regulations, training, and record keeping
--The domino theory posits that injuries result from from a series of factors, one of which is an accident; operationalized in 10 statements called the Axioms of Industrial Safety; according to this theory, there are 5 factors in the sequence of events leading to an accident (ancestry and social environment; fault of person; unsafe act/mechanical or physical hazard; accident; and injury)
--The human factors theory of accident causation attributes accidents to a chain of events ultimately caused by human error; consists of three broad factors that lead to human error (overload; inappropriate response; and inappropriate activities)
--The accident/incident theory of accident causation is an extension of the human factors theory; it introduces such new elements as ergonomic traps, the decision to err, and systems failure
--The epidemiological theory of accident causation holds that the models used for studying and determining the relationships between the environmental factors and disease can be used to study causal relationships between environmental factors and accidents
--The systems theory views any situation in which an accident may occur as a system with three components (person/host; machine/agency; and environment)
--The combination theory posits that no one model or theory can explain all accidents; factors from two or more models may be part of the cause
--there are 7 principles of behavior-based safety (intervention; identification of internal factors; motivation to behave in the desired manner; focus on the positive consequences of appropriate behavior; application of the scientific method integration of information; and planned interventions
--Drugs and alcohol are the root contributing cause of many workplace accidents every year
--Clinical depression is an invisible problem in the workplace, however, it can be a major cause of accidents
--Management failures are another leading cause of accidents on the job; if management is serious about workplace safety and health, it must establish expectations, provide training, evaluate employee performance with safety in mind, and reinforce safe and healthy behavior
--There is a strong correlation between obesity and injuries
--Lack of commitment: for instance, top management may go along with having a company-wide safety and health program because they see it as a necessary evil; or some may even see safety and health as a collection of government regulations that interfere with profits
--Production vs. safety: at times, a health or safety measure will be viewed by some as interfering with productivity; today's industrial firm must continually improve its productivity, quality, cost, image, response time, and service; (this is random, but a test ?; ergonomics or man-machine engineering, is a vertical standard dealing with safety and health)
--Company-wide commitment to safety and health: in many cases, safety and health managers have been their own worst enemy when it comes to gaining a company-wide commitment
--Lack of resources: safety and health managers are like other managers in an organization in that they must compete for the resources needed to do the job; today's safety and health manager must understand the bottom-line concerns of management, supervisors, and employees and be able to use these concerns to gain a commitment to safety and health; competitiveness comes from continually improving a company's productivity, quality, cost, image, service, and response time
--Productivity, quality, cost, and response time: these 4 factors are the key to productivity in the age of high technology and global competitiveness; the most productive company is the one that generates the most output with the least input; quality is a measure of reliability and customer satisfaction; cost is the amount of money required to purchase the item (customers are likely to go with the lowest price); response time is the amount of time that elapses between an order being placed and the product being delivered; to compete in the global marketplace, industrial companies must continually improve these 4 factors
--Image and service: a company's image, internal and external, can be a deciding factor in its ability to succeed; gaining a full a real commitment to safety and health in the workplace is one of the most important roles of the safety and health manager
--The modern safety and health team is headed by a safety and health manager; depending on the size of the company and the commitment of its management, the team may include people in the following additional positions: safety engineer, industrial hygienist, environmental engineer, health physicist, occupational physician, and occupational health nurse
--The job of the safety and health manager is complex and diverse, focusing on analysis, prevention, planning, evaluation, promotion, and compliance
--Engineers can have a significant impact on safety in the workplace and the marketplace by designing safety into products; the engineering disciplines geared most closely to design are aerospace, electrical, nuclear, and mechanical
--Industrial hygienists are concerned with recognizing the impact of environmental factors on people, evaluating the potential hazards of environmental stressors, and prescribing methods to eliminate stressors
--Health physicists are concerned primarily with radiation in the workplace; their duties include monitoring radiation in the air, measuring radioactivity levels in biological samples, developing the radiation components of a company's emergency action plan, and supervising decontamination activities
--Occupational physicians are medical doctors who specialize in workplace-related health problems and injuries; in the past, OPs treated injuries and illnesses as the occurred; today, they focus more attention on anticipating and preventing problems
--Occupational health nurses are concerned with conserving the health of workers through prevention, recognition, and treatment; focus more attention on anticipation and prevention than they did in the past
--Risk management involves the application of risk reduction strategies and transferring remaining risk to insurance companies
--Professional certification is an excellent way to establish credentials in the safety, health, and environmental management profession
--Talented people working in a safe and healthy environment will be more competitive than equally talented people who are constantly distracted by concerns for their safety and health
--The illiteracy problem, coupled with rapid and continual technological change, have serious implications for the global competitiveness of U.S. companies; the aging workforce also has serious implications for the global competitiveness of U.S. companies
--Productivity and cost: in a safe an healthy workplace, employees will be able to focus their skills more intently on being productive rather than worrying about accidents or health problems; on the cost side, companies with a record of safe and healthy practices will be better able to reinvest in equipment upgrades than those who must divert funds into things like medical claims
--Quality: essential to competitiveness; practices that enhance quality also tend to enhance safety and health; quality requires strict adherence to established production practices, attention to detail, and a commitment to doing things the right way
--Response time: like productivity in that it is a function of people, technology, and management strategies; a characteristic of today's most competitive companies is to produce their products while carrying little or no inventory
--Service: with industrial companies, service typically means in-field or after-delivery service; service is important because it can have significant impact on customer satisfaction, and, in turn, on corporate image; not associated with safety and health, therefore, it is not a component to be used when trying to gain a commitment to safety and health
--Image: a poor image can undermine a company's competitiveness
--Trenching is huge in Texas; lots of people die of suffocation from dirt falling on you
--Standards which are industry specific are called vertical standards while general standards applying to all industries are called horizontal standards
--OSHA develops its standards based on its perception of need and at the request of other federal agencies, state and local governments, other standards-setting agencies, labor organizations, or even individual private citizens; standing committees are the National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) and the Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health; NIOSH does research that is often used to assist OSHA in developing standards
--Standards vs. Regulations: OSHA standards address specific hazards such as working in confined spaces, handling hazardous waste, or working with dangerous chemicals; regulations are more generic in some cases than standards and more specific in others; regulations do not apply to specific hazards; regulations do not require the rigorous review process that standards go through
--How standards are adopted, amended, or revoked: before OSHA can adopt, amend, or revoke it must publish its intentions in the Federal Register in either a notice of proposed rule making or an advance notice of proposed rule making; the notice of proposed rule making must explain the terms of the new rule, delineate proposed changes to existing rules, or list rules that are to be revoked; the advance notice may be used instead of the regular notice when it is necessary to solicit input before drafting a rule; after publishing notice, OSHA must conduct a public hearing if one is requested; must publish the new standard in the Federal Register (the federal newspaper; short-term or about what's happening); any thing discussed in TX legislature will be printed in the TX state register
--OSHA standards are part of the CFR (Code of Federal Regulations; tells you all the rules, things you should do in an accident), published by the Office of the Federal Register; the regulations of all federal-government agencies are published in the CFR; Title 29 contains all the standards assigned to OSHA
--Appeals process: a standards may be appealed by any person who is opposed to it
--Temporary emergency standards: OSHA is empowered to pass temporary emergency standards on an emergency basis without undergoing normal adoption procedures; such standards remain in effect only until permanent standards can be developed; to justify passing temporary standards on an emergency basis, OSHA must determine that workers are in imminent danger from exposure to a hazard not covered by existing standards
--Requesting a variance: in the event an employer is unable to to comply with a new standard by the effective date of enforcement, the employer may petition OSHA at the state or federal level for a variance
----Temporary variance: OSHA may grant a temporary variance may grant such a variance for up to a maximum of one year; to be granted this, employers must demonstrate they are making a concerted effort to comply and taking the steps necessary to protect employees while working toward compliance); application requirements (identification of the parts of the standard that cannot be complied with; explanation of the reasons why compliance is not possible; detailed explanations of the steps that have been taken so far to comply with the standard; and explanation of the steps that will be taken to comply fully; the maximum period of each extension is 6
----Permanent variance: employers who feel they already provide a workplace that exceeds the requirements of a new standard may request a permanent variance; if a permanent variance is awarded, it comes with a detailed explanation of the employer's ongoing responsibilities regarding the variance; the variance can be revoked if the company does not meet these requirements
----Other variances: experimental variance may be awarded to companies that participate in OSHA-sponsored experiments to test the effectiveness of new health and safety procedures; variances also may be awarded in cases where the secretary of labor determines that a variance is in the best interest of the country's national defense
--One of the breakthroughs of the OSH Act was the centralization and systematization of record keeping
--OSHA's goals for the new record-keeping and reporting system: simplify all aspects of the process, improve the quality of records, meet the needs of a broad base of stakeholders, improve access for employees, minimize the regulatory burden, reduce vagueness and give clear guidance, and promote the use of data from the new system in local safety and health programs
--Reporting requirements: occupational illnesses and injuries must be reported if the result in death of one or more workers, one or more days away from work, restricted motion or restrictions to the work that an employee can do, loss of consciousness of one or more workers, transfer of an employee to another job, medical treatment beyond in-house first aid (if it is not on the first-aid list, it is considered medical treatment), and any other condition listed in Appendix B of the rule
--Record keeping requirements:
----OSHA's Form 300: used to record information about every work-related death and every work-related injury or illness that involves loss of consciousness, restricted work activity, job transfer, days away from work, or medical treatment beyond first-aid (defined as using nonprescription medicine, administering tetanus immunizations, cleaning flushing, or soaking wounds on the surface of the skin, using wound coverings such as bandages, gauze pads, and so on, using hot or cold therapy, using totally nonrigid means of support, using temporary immobilization devices, drilling a fingernail or toenail to relieve pressure, or draining fluid from blisters, using eye patches, using irrigation, tweezers, cotton swab, or other simple means to remove splinters or foreign material from areas other than the eye, using finger guards, and drinking fluids to relieve heat stress); injuries that require no more than these first-aid procedures do not have to be recorded; also used to record significant work-related injuries and illnesses that are diagnosed by a physician or licensed health care professional
----OSHA's Form 300A: all organizations covered by 29 CFR must complete this form, even if there have been no work-related injuries or illnesses during the year in question; this form is used to summarize all injuries and illnesses that appear on Form 300
----OSHA's Form 301: used for every incidence of a recordable injury or illness; this form must be completed within 7 calendar days of learning that a recordable injury or illness has occurred
--Record keeping and reporting exceptions: employers with 10 or fewer employees; employers in real estate, finance, retail trade, or insurance; most industries that fall into Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes are exempt from all record-keeping and reporting requirements except in the case of a fatality or an incident in which five or more employees are hospitalized
--Accidents and incidents rates must be kept for 5 years; if it is an illness, rates must be kept for 30 years
--A citation informs the employer of OSHA violations; penalties are typically fines assessed as the result of citations
--Other-than serious violation: a violation that has a direct relationship to job safety and health, but probably would not cause death or serious physical harm; proposed penalties may be adjusted downward depending on the employer's good faith, history of previous violations, and size of business
--Serious violation: a violation in which there is a high probability that death or serious physical injury may result and that the employer knew or should have known of the hazard; mandatory penalties may be adjusted downward depending on the employer's good faith, history of prior violations, and the gravity of the alleged violation
--Willful violation: a violation that the employer intentionally and knowingly commits; the employer either knows that what he/she is doing constitutes a violation or is aware that a hazardous condition exists and has made no reasonable effort to eliminate it; proposed penalties may be adjusted downward, depending on the size of the business and its history of previous violations
--Repeat violations: failure to abate prior violation (failure to correct a prior violation may bring a civil penalty for each day that the violation continues beyond the prescribed abatement date); de minimis violation (violations of standards that have no direct bearing on safety and health; documented like any other citation, but they are not included in citations)
--Employers may be penalized by additional fines and/or prison if convicted of any of the following: falsifying records or any other informations given to OSHA personnel; failing to comply with posting requirements; and interfering in any way with OSHA compliance officers in the performance of their duties
--Examples of OSHA Citations and Fines: failure to properly use machine guards; selected through OSHA's site-specific targeting program; failure to train employees in the application of proper safety procedures; failure to abate previous hazards
--Consultation Services: include assistance in identifying hazardous conditions, correcting identified hazards, and developing and implementing programs to prevent injuries and illnesses
--Voluntary Protection Programs: serve 3 basic purposes--> to recognize companies that have incorporated safety and health programs into their overall management system; to motivate companies to incorporate health and safety programs into their overall management system; and to promote positive, cooperative relationships among employers, employees, and OSHA; companies participating in VPPs are exempt from regular programmed OSHA inspections
----Star Program: recognizes companies that have incorporated safety and health into their regular management system so successfully that their injury rates are below the national average for their industry; OSHA's most strenuous program; to be part of this program, a company must demonstrate management commitment, employee participation, an excellent work-site analysis program, a hazard prevention and control program, a comprehensive safety and health training program
----Merit Program: less strenuous than the Star Program; it is seen as a steppingstone to recognize companies that have made a good start toward Star Program recognition
----Demonstration Program: for companies that provide star-quality worker protection in industries were certain Star requirements can be changed to include these companies as Star participants
--Training and Education Services: take on several forms
--Employer Rights: seek advice and consultation as needed by contracting or visiting the nearest OSHA office; request proper identification of the OSHA compliance officer prior to an inspection; be advised by the compliance officer of the reason for an inspection; have an opening and closing conference with the compliance officer in conjunction with an inspection; accompany the compliance officer on the inspection; file a notice of contest with the OSHA area director within 15 working days of receipt of a notice of citation and proposed penalty; apply for a temporary variance from a standard if unable to comply b/c the materials, equipment, or personnel needed to make necessary changes within the required time are not available; apply for a permanent variance from a standard if able to furnish proof that the facilities or methods of operation provide employee protection at least as effective as that required by the standard, take an active role in developing safety and health standards through participation in OSHA Standards Advisory Committees, through nationally recognized standards-setting organizations, and through evidence and views presented in writing or at hearings; be assured of the confidentiality of any trade secrets observed by an OSHA compliance officer during an inspection; ask NIOSH for information concerning whether any substance in the workplace has potentially toxic effects
--Employer Responsibilities: employers must meet the general duty responsibility to provide a workplace free from hazards that are causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees and to comply with standards, rules, and regulations issued under the OSH Act; be knowledgeable of mandatory standards and make copies available to employees for review upon request; keep employees informed about OSHA; continually examine workplace conditions to ensure that they confirm to standards; minimize or reduce hazards; make sure employees have and use safe tools and equipment (including appropriate personal protective equipment) that is properly maintained; use color codes, posters, labels, or signs as appropriate to warn employees of potential hazards; establish or update operating procedures and communicate them so that employees follow safety and health requirements; provide medical examinations when required by OSHA standards; provide the training required by OSHA standards; report to the nearest OSHA office within 8 hours any fatal accident or one that results in the hospitalization of 3 or more employees; keep OSHA-required records of injuries and illnesses and post a copy of OSHA Form 300 from February 1 through April 30 each year (this applies to employers with 11 or more employees); at a prominent location within the workplace, post OSHA Poster 2203 informing employees of their rights and responsibilities; provide employees, former employees, and their representatives access to the Log of the Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses (OSHA Form 300) at a reasonable time and in a reasonable manner; give employees access to medical and exposure records; give the OSHA compliance officer the names of authorized employee representatives who may be asked to accompany the compliance officer during an inspection; not discriminate against employees who properly exercise their rights under the act; post OSHA citations at or near the work site involved (each citation or copy must remain posted until the violation has been abated or for three working days, whichever is longer); and abate child violations within the prescribed period
--Part of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
--2 broad functions: research and education
--The main focus of research is on toxicity levels and human tolerance levels of hazardous substances
--Every year, it NIOSH publishes updated lists of toxic materials and recommended tolerance levels
--Part of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
--Has the authority to conduct research in the workplace and to respond to requests for assistance from employers and employees
--Developed a list of the 10 leading work-related diseases and injuries: occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, occupational cardiovascular disease, severe occupational traumatic injuries, disorders of reproduction, neurotoxic disorders, noise-induced hearing loss, dermatological conditions, and psychological disorders
--Division of Biomedical and Behavioral Science (DBBS): conducts research in the areas of toxicology, behavioral science, ergonomics, and the health consequences of various physical agents; investigates problems caused by new technologies and develops biological monitoring and diagnostic aids; conducts laboratory and work-site research into the psychological, behavioral, physiological, and motivational factors relating to job stress as well as those induced by chemical and physical agents; assesses physical work capacity and tolerance for environmental conditions as influenced by age, gender, body type, and physical fitness; conducts research on hazards from physical agents such as noise, vibration, and non-ionizing energy sources
--Division of Respiratory Disease Studies (DRDS): focal point for the clinical and epidemiological research that NIOSH conducts on occupational respiratory diseases; provides legislatively mandated medical and autopsy services and conducts medical research to fulfill NIOSH's responsibilities under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act; conducts field studies of occupational respiratory diseases in addition to designing and interpreting cross-sectional and prospective morbidity and mortality studies relating to occupational respiratory diseases
--Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies (DHEFS): conducts surveillance of the nation's workforce and workplaces to assess the magnitude and extent of job-related illnesses, exposures, and hazardous agents; conducts legislatively mandated health hazard evaluations and industry-wide epidemiological research programs, including longitudinal studies of records and clinical and environmental field studies and surveys
--Division of Training and Manpower Development (DTMD): implements the OSH Act, which sets forth training and education requirements; develops programs to increase the numbers and competence of safety and health professionals; provides short-term technical training courses
--Found in CFR; most widely applicable OSHA standards
--General Safety and Health Provisions: employers that are required to keep medical and exposure records must do the following--> maintain the records for the duration of employment plus 30 years and give employees access to their individual personal records
--Walking-Working Surfaces: contains the standards for all surfaces on which employees walk or work
--Means of Egress: requires employers to ensure that employees have a safe, accessible, and efficient means of escaping a building under emergency circumstances
--Powered Platforms: applies to powered platforms, mechanical lifts, and vehicle-mounted work platforms
--Health and Environmental Controls: most widely and applicable standard in this part is occupational noise exposure; other standards in this subpart pertain to situations where ionizing and/or nonionizing radiation are present
--Hazardous Materials: covers the use, handling, and storage of flammable and combustible liquids; applies to indoor spray painting processes and processes in which paint (powder coating) is applied in powder form; applies to the management of processes involving specifically named chemicals and flammable liquids and gases; contains requirements relating to emergency response operations and hazardous waste
--Personal Protective Equipment: general requirements, eye and face protection, and respiratory protection
--General Environment Controls: pertain to general housekeeping requirements; permit-required confined spaces (large enough and so configured that a person can enter it and perform assigned work tasks therein; continuous employee occupancy is not intended); also contains the lockout/tagout standard
--Medical and First Aid: if employees are exposed to injurious corrosive materials, equipment must be provided for quickly flushing the eyes and showering the body; requires medical personnel to be readily available
--Electrical: contains standards divided into the following two categories: design of electrical systems and safety-related work practices
--Commercial Driving Operations: divided into 6 categories: general, personnel requirements, general operations and procedures, specific operations and procedures, equipment procedures and requirements, and record keeping
--Toxic and Hazardous Substances: contains the standards that establish permissible exposure limits (PELs: the amount of a given airborne substance to which employees can be exposed during a specified period of time) for selected toxic and hazardous substances (those for which PELs have been established)
--Negligence: means failure to take reasonable care of failure to perform duties in ways that prevent harm to humans or damage to property; gross negligence means failure to exercise even slight care of intentional failure to perform duties properly, regardless of the potential consequences; contributory negligence means that an injured party contributed in some way to his/her own injury; comparative negligence distributes the negligence assigned to each party involved in litigation according to the findings in court
--Liability: a duty to compensate as a result of being held responsible for an act or omission; strict liability means that a company is liable for damages caused by a product that it produces, regardless or negligence or fault
--Care: reasonable care is the amount that would be taken by a prudent person in exercising his/her legal obligations toward others; great care means the amount of care that would have been taken by an extraordinarily prudent person in exercising his/her legal obligations toward others; slight care represents the other extreme; exercise of due care means that all people have a legal obligation to exercise the amount of care necessary to avoid, to the extent possible, bringing harm to others or damage to their property
--Ability to Pay: applies when there are a number of defendants in a case, but not all have the ability to pay financial damages; it allows the court to assess all damages against the defendant or defendants who have the ability to pay; sometimes referred to as the "deep pockets" principle
--Damages: financial awards assigned to injured parties in a lawsuit; compensatory damages are awarded to compensate for injuries suffered and for those that will be suffered; punitive damages are awarded to ensure that a guilty party will be disinclined to engage in negligent behavior in the future
--Proximate Cause: the cause of an injury or damage to a property; the action or lack of action that ties one person's injuries to another's lack of reasonable care
--Willful/Reckless Conduct: involves intentionally neglecting one's responsibility to exercise reasonable care
--Tort: an action involving a failure to exercise reasonable care that as a result may lead to civil litigation
--Forseeability: holds that a person can be held liable for actions that result in damages or injury only when risks could have been reasonably foreseen; health and safety professionals can serve their companies best by making sure that a policy and corresponding rules and regulations are in place, keeping employees informed about rules and regulations, encouraging proper enforcement practices, and ensuring that employees get the education and training they need to perform their jobs safely