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Vasculature and Gross Brain
Terms in this set (51)
separates 2 cerebral hemispheres
central sulcus (rolandic)
important landmark separating somatic motor and sensory cortical regions
-serves as the boundary between the frontal lobe and the parietal lone
lateral fissure (sylvian)
separates the temporal lobe from the frontal lone
that part of the cerebrum located rostral to the central sulcus and superior to the lateral fissure
precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe
located just rostral to the central sulcus and contains motor areas of the cerebrum
separates the precentral gyrus from three horizontal gyri of the frontal lobe: the superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri
-sulci separating these are the superior and inferior frontal sulci
Broca's speech area (frontal lobe)
This is a region of the inferior frontal lobe near the prefrontal cortex at the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus of one of the hemispheres (areas 44 and 45)
It is the motor region for speech formulation and defines the dominant hemisphere (usually the left).
This lobe extends from the central sulcus caudally to an imaginary line drawn between the parietal-occipital sulcus and the preoccipital notch
- involved with somatosensory information and with making associations among the varied sensory inputs arriving in the cerebrum.
-Spatial orientation and perception
postcentral gyrus (primary somatosensory cortex)
lies just caudal to the central sulcus. It is concerned with the initial cortical processing of tactile and proprioceptive information.
inferior parietal lobule
lies with the superior parietal lobule?
consists of the supramarginal gyrus and the angular gyrus, and it is involved in the comprehension of language (along with portions of the temporal lobe).
The lateral surface of this lobe has three gyri separated by two sulci. These are the superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri and the superior and inferior temporal sulci. On the ventral surface of the brain, the parahippocampal gyrus is part of the temporal lobe. The medial projection off the anterior parahippocampal gyrus is the uncus.
-primary auditory cortex
-higher order visual processing
-learning and memory
primary auditory cortex (temporal lobe)
Areas for hearing are located in the superior surface of the temporal lobe and superior temporal gyrus
Wernickeis area (temporal lobe)
a region concerning the sense of hearing which functions in the interpretation of speech.
It is located in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus and in parts of the adjacent parietal and occipital lobes (in the dominant, usually the left, hemisphere)(areas 39 and 40)
learning and memory (temporal lobe)
the medial portion of the temporal lobe is actually part of the limbic system and is related to underlying limbic structures.
However, it is often described as the "medial temporal lobe"
The remainder of the cerebral hemispheres, caudal to that imaginary line drawn between the parieto-occipital fissure and the parieto-occipital notch
The lateral surface is variable and contains the lateral occipital gyri.
On the medial surface, there is a wedge shaped portion between the parieto-occipital fissure and the calcarine sulci called the cuneate gyrus. The lingual gyrus lies inferior to the calcarine sulcus.
mostly composed of the cingulate and parahippocampal gyri. The cingulate gyrus is immediately superior to the corpus callosum and proceeds posteriorly to become continuous with the parahippocampal gyrus.
this system of structures is important in emotional responses, drive-related behavior and memory.
somatotopic organization of the cortex
The cortex is arranged in such a way that each area of the cortex is roughly associated with a specific area of the body.
Forms a "map" that is most evident in the primary motor and sensory cortices, where the dorsal portions of the cortex correspond to the feet and the ventral portions correspond to the face.
The hip/knee/thigh region is represented near the superior margin, with the lower leg and feet on the medial surface of the hemisphere.
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres and carrying messages between them
located just in front of the columns of the fornix (part of the limbic system)
A. found near the base of the pineal body
thin membrane that separates lateral ventricles
-caudal to the corpus callosum
-thin sheet of grey matter that occupies the midline
the connection between the right and left thalamic nuclei
-fusion of the medial thalamus with its contralateral counterpart forms the interthalamic adhesion
separates thalamus from hypothalamus
extends from the optic chiasm rostrally to the mamillary bodies caudally
the stalk which attaches the pituitary (Hypophysis) to the hypothalamus
-sits on top of sella turcica
internal carotid artery
primary blood supply to the brain; anastomoses with the verterbral aa. and the contralateral internal carotid a. It enters the cranium adjacent to foramen lacerum and traverses the cavernous sinus, which is adjacent to the hypophysis
-anterior cerebral artery
-middle cerebral artery
-posterior communicating artery
-anterior choroidal artery
anterior cerebral artery
travels between the 2 hemispheres to supply midline cortical structures. Joined in the midline by the anterior communicating a.
-Medial and inferior portions of frontal lobe (lower extremity regions of motor cortex)
-Medial portions of parietal lobes (lower extremity regions of sensory cortex)
-Rostral corpus callosum and limbic lobe
-Parts of basal ganglia
-Anterior limb of internal capsule
-Olfactory bulb and tract
-Parts of optic nerve, chiasm and tract
middle cerebral artery
Largest and most complex of cerebral arteries; direct continuation of the ICA that travels laterally within the lateral and central sulci between the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes.
-Superior & Inferior trunks: each of which subdivides into multiple branches to supply most of convexity of cerebral hemisphere
superior and inferior trunks of the middle cerebral artery
subdivides into multiple branches to supply most of convexity of cerebral hemisphere, including frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes.
Includes inferior and middle frontal gyri, most of pre- and post-central gyri, superior and inferior parietal lobules, superior and middle temporal gyri and rostral portions of occipital lobe.
-Rolandic (central sulcal) branches: most commonly occluded
Arise from the middle cerebral artery before the division into the superior and inferior trunks. Penetrate the anterior perforated substance known as the striate.
Supply primarily basal ganglia structures and internal capsule (anterior and posterior limbs).
Occlusion can cause major deficits if internal capsule is affected.
posterior communicating artery
branch of the ICA that connects it to the posterior cerebral a.; part of the Circle of Willis.
anterior choroidal artery
follows the optic tract and supplies:
-Optic nerve, chiasm and tract
-Parts of basal ganglia, thalamus, and posterior limb of internal capsule
branches adjacent to the hypophysis at the posterior margin of the orbit.
-ethmoidal air cells
-lateral nasal wall
-dorsum of the nose
consists of two vertebral arteries and the basilar artery
ascend in the transverse foramina of C6 and above.
-Enter cranium through foramen magnum.
-Tortuous route as enters cranium-may be compromised by extension & rotation of head in some pts (vertebrobasilar insufficiency)
Branches of Vertebral Artery:
-Anterior spinal artery
-Posterior spinal artery (sometimes)
-Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)
anterior spinal artery
two arteries unite to form a single descending midline vessel, which supplies roughly the anterior 2/3 of the spinal cord
posterior spinal artery
remains paired and descends on posterior surface of spinal cord.
Supplies posterior 1/3 of spinal cord.
posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)
supplies parts of medulla and inferior aspect of cerebellum
occlusion - lateral medullary syndrome
Two vertebral arteries unite at the caudal border of the pons to form this artery, which splits into posterior cerebral arteries at level of midbrain.
-Anterior inferior cerebellar artery
-Superior cerebellar artery
-Posterior cerebral artery
anterior inferior cerebellar artery
supplies blood to parts of pons and anterior portions of inferior cerebellum
arteries do not supply brain stem; supply inner ear.
arterial supply to pons
superior cerebellar artery
arterial supply to superior parts of cerebellum, caudal midbrain and rostral pons
posterior cerebral artery
blood supply to parts of midbrain & thalamus, inferior surface of temporal lobe, medial aspect of occipital lobe (including primary visual cortex) and splenium of corpus callosum.
circle of willis
Provides overlapping blood supply and anastomotic connections to protect brain when part of its vascular supply is blocked.
-2 posterior cerebral arteries
-2 posterior communicating arteries
-2 internal carotid arteries
-2 anterior cerebral arteries
-1 anterior communicating artery
disruption of blood flow to a region of tissue
stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
an abrupt incident of vascular insufficiency. Most CVAs are typically due to blocked blood flow (ischemic stroke) or to bleeding from a vessel (hemorrhagic stroke)
Reduction and blood flow to a region of brain tissue can result in neurological damage ranging from decreased neuronal activity to necrosis.
Severe and prolonged CVAs (longer than a few minutes) can result in areas of necrotic tissue (infarct).
The size of the infarct is related to the size of the occluded vessel.
Blockage of small perforating arteries produces a much smaller area of necrosis than that of large vessels. However, a very small infarct can produce severe neurological deficits depending on its location.
most commonly caused by thrombus (blood clot within the vessel) or an embolus (bit of foreign matter that is carried along the bloodstream)
can cause CVA
have a different pathophysiology than ischemic strokes, and most often result from the rupture of small perforating arteries (such as the lenticulostriate arteries).
Most common cause of rupture is hypertension.
balloon-like swelling in the wall of an artery. May occur anywhere in body, but most often occur at or near an arterial bifurcation.
When occurs in cerebral circulation, it most often occurs at or near the anterior half of the circle of Willis. Can occur in other places as well.
Pathology is due to
a) pressure on nearby structures
b) rupture causing a subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Many can be corrected surgically if detected in time.
congenital malformation in which there is an abnormal, direct connection between arteries and veins without normal intervening capillary bed.
Prone to bleeding resulting in neurological symptoms.
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