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AP World History Paleolithic to Judaism
Terms in this set (67)
Where and when did the first human species live?
2.5 million years ago in East Africa
Why was the development of agriculture important?
Allowed people to live in larger groups
A dependable food resource
Allowed people to stay in one place
What were the big changes with agriculture?
Family Farms population growth
surplus of Food early forms of civilization
social inequality social patterns
What were the continuities that persisted?
Inventing new farm tools
Define the term Paleolithic Age
The Old Stone Age; ended in 12,000 B.C.E. used crude stone tools and hunting and gathering for substance
Define Homo Erectus
A less ape like species, had a larger brain, emerged between 500,000 and 750,000 years ago in Africa. Used primitive tools and speech.
Describe Homo Sapiens
The ancestors of today's humans originated about 240,000 years ago in Africa.
Describe those who hunted and gathered.
Small hunting groups, men hunted, women gathered, population growth was slow, 2 people required at least 1 square mile for survival
What were the key achievements of the Paleolithic people?
spread of the human species over Earth's surface, fire, and use of animal skins for clothing.
How did people migrate to the Americas?
Land bridge from Siberia to Alaska
When was the Mesolithic Age?
12,000 to 8,000 B.C.E.
What were the accomplishments of the Mesolithic Age?
Learned to sharpen and shape stone, make better weapons, animal bones were used for needles, built log rafts, manufactured pots, domesticated animals
Define Neolithic Age
8,000 to 5,000 B.C.E. in the Middle East, sedentary agriculture; domestication of plants and animals
How did the invention of agriculture help human beings?
Humans were able to settle in one place
Focus on political, Religious, and economic goals
Animals were domesticated
Where was farming initially developed?
In the Middle East, present day Turkey, Iraq, and Israel
Why did the inhabitants of Australia, southern Africa, and Southeast Asia not develop agriculture?
The places were so isolated, that they simply did not know about it
How had metalworking help societies?
Metal tools permitted more diverse shapes, sharper, more precise, more durable, and more accurate weapons.
How did the hunting groups move?
Moved in small groups of 40-60 people. Continuously move to find food. Followed the animals. Moved with family.
What is slash and burn?
A system of cultivation typical of shifting cultivators, forest floors cleared by fire are then planted.
Describe the Bronze Age.
from 4000 B.C.E. to 1500 B.C.E. from when bronze tools were first introduced to when iron began to replace it.
Describe the Neolithic Village of Catal Huyuk
Early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture, located in modern southern Turkey, founded around 7000 B.C.E., larger population than Jericho, building made of mud brick, people stayed on roofs to watch for enemies, made everything they needed, traded for peace not necessity.
Where did the first three civilizations arise?
Middle East between the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates- Iraq
Along the banks of the Indus River- India
Reliance on sedentary agriculture
ability to produce food surpluses
Merchant and manufacturing groups
Define Cuneiform: How is writing helpful to civilizations
Cuneiform developed in the Middle East by the Sumerians; using a wedge shaped stylus and clay tablets. Writing is helpful for organizing more elaborate political structures because of the ability to send messages and keep records. Tax more efficiently. Governments became more formal and bureaucratic.
Literally between two rivers. Arose between the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys. By 4000 B.C.E. the farmers were familiar with bronze and copper. Invented the wheel
Who were the Sumerians?
People who migrated into Mesopotamia c. 4000 B.C.E.; created the first civilization within the region; organized into city states; 1st to produce written law code; polytheistic, founded science and astronomy, developed cuneiform, each city had a patron god, first to use numbers based on 10, 60, and 360
What were Ziggurats?
Massive towers that served as temple complexes
What were city states?
A form of political organization typical of Mesopotamian civilizations, consisted of agricultural hinterlands, ruled by an urban based king. Had slaves
Who defeated the Sumerians?
Who were the Babylonians?
Group of people that over took the Akkadians and extended their own empire and helped bring civilization to other parts of the Middle East.
What did King Hammurabi introduce?
Hammurabi's code of law -rules for courts-very harsh
Where was the Egyptian civilization?
Northern Africa-along the Nile River
Describe the Egyptian Civilizations
Formed by 3000 B.C.E. benefited from the trade and technological influence of Mesopotamia, The king was called the Pharaoh and possessed immense power-godlike status, The government controlled the economy, The pyramids were the tombs of the pharaohs, colorful art, Achievements: architecture, art, math, 24 hour days, Kingdom of Kush invaded it
What were the Harappa and Mohenjo Daro?
Large cities of the River Valley Civilizations- Indus River
Houses had running water, trading contacts with Mesopotamia, distinctive alphabet and artistic forms.
Describe the Indus Valley Civilizations.
Built on a square grid that was divided into 12 segments. Buildings made out of kiln dried bricks, Ruling class indicated by citadels. Citadels served as sanctuaries at a time of attack, a place of worship, and a bathing center. The cities were supported by an advanced agricultural system and irrigation systems. The Cities also had highly developed trade.Domesticated animals, Used bronze for weapons, Society had a powerful priestly class. Flooding and Natural disasters led to the decline.
Describe China's civilization on the Yellow River.
Civilization developed in considerable isolation. The Chinese produced an advanced technological and an elaborate intellectual way of life. Rode horses, were potters, used bronze and later iron. A writing concept using ideographic symbols was formed. Chinese art and music was very important. The Shang conquered most of the other tribes. Their kingdom would lay the foundation of Chinese Civilization. Warlike nomads. The Shang warriors were ruled by strong kings. The Shang monarch was seen as the intermediary between the supreme being and ordinary mortals. Shang monarchs were served by a bureaucracy. Oracles were very important in the Chinese civilization. The people of the loess region spoke a variety of languages. Hanghe culture was the most isolated. A vassal was granted land in return for military services. They were polytheistic.
What were the accomplishments of the river valley civilizations?
Monuments, invention of the wheel, the taming of the horse, the creation of usable alphabets, the production of key mathmatical concepts, development of monarchies and bureaucracies, invention of the calendar
Who were the Phoenicians? What did they accomplish?
Sea faring civilization located on the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean. They established colonies throughout the Mediterranean. Devised an alphabet of 22 letters that was the predecessor of the Greek and Latin. This was a unique alphabet based upon sounds. Improved the Egyptian numbering system, set up colonial cities in North Africa as well as the coasts of Europe.
What did the Jews accomplish religiously?
First clearly developed monotheistic religion.
What is monotheism?
Exclusive worship of a single god.
How was the Jewish God portrayed?
Orderly and just. Viewed as less like humans, more of an abstract.
4 places where the earliest civilizations were
Which group founded monotheism?
Harappa and Mohenjo Daro were along?
Animals were domesticated around what time period?
What river runs through Egypt?
The Nile River
What came before agriculture?
What was unique about China?
It was isolated
Who migrated into Mesopotamia as the 1st civilization?
What were Ziggurats?
What part of the world did agriculture originate?
Who developed cuneiform?
Hammurabi's code of law
Who created the 22 letter alphabet?
What was the primary reason for the start of agriculture?
stable food source
What rivers was Mesopotamia on?
Tigris and Euphrates
Where did humans first live?
What were the gender roles in hunting gathering?
men hunted, women gathered.
Hieroglyphics started with which group?
In the Stone Age how were women treated?
What did the development of writing create?
Governments that were more formal and bureaucratic.
During what age did you have simple stone tools?
What type of groups did hunting gathering groups form?
Which river valley was completely destroyed by flooding?
What makes a civilization?
Why did Australia never develop agriculture?
They were isolated.
Where did the Neolithic Revolution first occur?
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