Upgrade to remove ads
WWU ESCI 101 Exam 3
Terms in this set (80)
Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?
C) Carbon dioxide
D) Nitrous oxide
Observed increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the past 100 years can be attributed to:
A) Burning of oil
B) Burning of natural gas
D) All of the above
Anticipated impacts of future climate change include:
A) Rising rates of sea level rise
B) Changing weather patterns
C) Loss of glaciers
D) All of the above
True or False: The melting and disappearance of sea ice will probably intensify climate change.
True or False: When sunlight hits the earth, it is absorbed and converted to heat.
A) Absorb sunlight
B) Re-emit, or reflect, heat back to the surface
C) Change sunlight energy into heat energy
D) Reflect sunlight like a mirror
E) All of the above
True or False: Most scientists claim that the observed increase in global temperature over the past 40 years can be attributed to natural causes such as volcanoes and sun spot activity.
True or False: The scientific consensus is that we should try and eliminate all greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.
Most of the additional carbon dioxide that is fueling the enhanced greenhouse effect is coming from:
A) Cow farts
C) The burning of fossil fuels
E) The dissolution of limestone
Figure 1 in this paper (Climate Science 101) reveals a moderate cooling (or at least no warming) from 1940 - 1975. This was likely due to:
A) Changes in the earth's orbit
B) An especially strong La Nina
C) Solar cycles
D) A surge in sun-blocking pollutants after WWII, when pollution was largely unregulated
The disappearance of sea ice, as the earth warms, may intensify global warming because:
A) Ice is very cold and there will be less of it
B) Ice reflects light back to space
C) There will be fewer polar bears
D) Of the latent inertia in the ice laminates
True or False: Main sources of water during the dry summer months in the PNW are reservoirs and snow on the mountains.
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation reverses on what timescale?
A) 20-30 years
B) 2-7 years
C) 50-100 years
D) 100-1000 years
Climate models are generated by computer programs that:
A) Model the influence the sun has on tree growth
B) Predict solar flux
C) Apply the laws of physics to the "climate system" and predicts the state of the climate (past, present, or future) based on particular parameters (e.g., CO2)
D) Model the state of the economy
One significant change we can be fairly sure will happen is:
A) Sea levels will drop
B) Snow cover will shrink in coming decades with lower elevation losing snow first
C) Precipitation will decrease around the world
D) Solar variability will decrease
True or False: When climate change scenarios were applied to models that simulated the PNW's rivers, the peak flows from spring snowmelt happened later than usual. This means that more water will be available in the summer.
About how many inhabitants will be added to the region over the next 30 years?
The two main patters of the Pacific climate variability are:
A) The PDO and the ENSO
B) The PDO and the IPCC
C) The IPCC and the TMDL
D) The TMDL and the NPDES
According to Figure 7 (Climate Change in the PNW), the present flow of the Columbia River peaks in:
Hottest 5 Years
Last 5 years
During the cool phase of a PDO, Coho salmon catches:
A) Decrease by about 50%
B) Increase by about 50%
C) Increase by about 19%
D) Decrease by about 4%
If you are 31 years old or younger, you have never:
Lived through a month that was, globally, colder than average.
Overall weather in an area over a long period of time
The short-term state of the atmosphere, including temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, and visibility
The overall trend in regards to the fluctuation of global temperatures
Year to year variations in regards to the fluctuation of global temperatures
Signal vs. Noise
There is a clear signal of increasing global temperatures, however, there is noise based on El Nino, La Nina, etc. It is the rate of change that matters.
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor
Reason one why greenhouse gases are not the same
Different lifetimes in the atmosphere, capacities to trap heat and concentrations.
the amount of change in thermal energy that a given factor causes
Global carbon cycle
The worldwide movement of carbon among terrestrial ecosystems, the oceans, and the atmosphere.
Atmospheric carbon budget
760 gigatonnes of carbon
Oceanic carbon budget
39,000 gigatonnes of carbon
Land and vegetation carbon budget
2,500 gigatonnes of carbon
Fossil fuel carbon budget
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Panel of scientists and researchers that has been one of the main bodies in environmental control and standards in the international community
Summary of 2013 report (over past century): Global surface temperature
Increased by 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit
Summary of 2013 report (over past century): Snow cover and ice extent
Has decreased (glaciers, Greenland, Antarctic, Arctic Summer Sea Ice)
Summary of 2013 report (over past century): Sea level
Risen 0.21 meters
Summary of 2013 report (over past century): Concentrations of greenhouse gases
Has increased 40% since 1950. Present concentrations have not been exceeded during the past 800,000 years
Summary of 2013 report (over past century): Causes of greenhouse gas increase
75% of this increase: fossil fuel burning
25% of this increase: land use practices
Natural facts: minor contributions
Summary of 2013 report (over past century): Impact of human activities
Most of warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities
Summary of 2013 report (the next century): CO2 model projections
540 - 970 parts per million CO2
Summary of 2013 report (the next century): Stabilization at current CO2 level
Current: 450 parts per million CO2, Stabilization would require that emissions drop to pre-1990 levels within the next two decades
Summary of 2013 report (the next century): Temperature increases
Predicted to increase 1.0 to 3.7 degrees Celsius (land areas will warm more)
Summary of 2013 report (the next century): Sea level rise
Predicted to rise 0.4 to 0.63 meters
Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets
Losing mass at an increasing rate; melting of glaciers has accelerated as well
Rate of sea level rise per year
Rate of temperature increase per decade
Have increased 0.19 degrees Celsius per decade over the past 25 years
Global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels in 2008
Were nearly 40% higher than those in 1990
consequence of sea level rise
Globally, 364 million people live within 30 feet of sea level
A long cylinder of ice obtained from drilling through ice caps or ice sheets; used to study past climates.
Storm winds push water north towards Venice. This leads to flooding around 100 times per year (many more times than the past)
Climate change model
A computer-generated model designed to provide insight into how climate changed in the past and may change in the future, and what the consequences of climate change may be
Back-casting to test models
Starting with result and calculating what actions need to happen
Global warming uncertainty
Impacts on life, response of humans, effects of feedback, and local effects
El Nino/Southern Oscillation
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
Climate of the past century
Annual average temperatures rose 1 to 3 degrees Fahrenheit and precipitation increased by 11% on average.
Key Issue: Freshwater
our snowpack is decreasing rapidly in the spring months making it harder to sustain freshwater into the summer months.
Key Issue: Salmon
increased winter flooding, reduced spring and summer flows, warmer stream and estuarine temperatures.
Warmer winters and summers, no increase in summer rainfall:
evapotranspiration, soil moisture deficits, decreased photosynthesis, northward expansion of southern insects, increase in fire frequency
pipeline explosion killed a kid named Wade King and the family donated alot of their payoff to wwu
Coal industry is now mainly run by machines and robots
Used for energy and transportation purposes
Highest amount of deaths caused by a form of energy:
Coal costs most deaths by a factor of about 4
Overall impact =
extraction degradation + extraction risk + transportation related degradation + use degradation
How much energy do we use per person in the U.S.
how much energy comes from renewable energy
Feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output.
feedback that reduces the output of a system
decreasing pH of ocean waters due to absorption of excess atmospheric CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels
Human vs. natural influences on climate change
the natural influences on climate change are very small while the human influence on climate change are massive and rapidly growing
measuring greenhouse gasses
There are only a few dozen instruments dedicated to measuring greenhouse gas levels around the world. As a result, these emissions have largely been estimated rather than precisely measure
Present concentration of atmospheric CO2
Characteristics of ENSO
Irregular, 2-7 years, Characterized by higher than average ocean temperatures in the equatorial pacific, in PNW winters = warmer and drier
A cooling of the ocean surface off the western coast of South America, occurring periodically every 4 to 12 years and affecting Pacific and other weather patterns.
Characteristics of PDO
Irregular, 20-30 year phase. PNW: warm phase = warmer and drier; cool phase is opposite of this
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
ESCI 101 exam 3
ESCI 101 Exam 3
geo exam 2: chapter 11
Global Climate Change Assignment
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Art History 271; Japan
Psychology 119 Gender Ch. 5-7 Test study guide
Korea art history 271