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the actual intent is expressed in words which carry the opposite is lighter, less harsh in wording than sarcasm, though more cutting because of its indirectness...words of praise to imply blame and words of blame to imply praise

verbal irony

simply an inversion of say one thing but mean the opposite

dramatic irony

when the words or acts of a character carry a meaning unperceived by himself but understood by the audience

socratic irony

feigning ignorance to achieve some advantage over an opponent...Ex: socrates pretended ignorance of a subject in order to draw knowledge out of his students by a question and answer device

situational irony

depends on a discrepancy between purpose and results...Ex: a practical joke that backfires is situational irony


presents a serious (often religious) subject frivolously it reduces everything to its lowest level...presenting a subject in a manner intended for another type of subject


ridiculous exaggeration achieved through a variety of ways


a composition imitating or burlesquing another, usually serious, piece of work...designed to ridicule in nonsensical fashion an original piece of work


exciting laughter through exaggerated, improbable situations...usually contains low comedy: fighting, horseplay, trickery, drunkenness


harsh, abusive language directed against a person or cause...invective is a vehicle, a tool of anger...invective is the bitterest of all satire


a sharply mocking or contemptuous remark

Knaves & Fools

in comedy there are no villains and no innocent victims. instead, there are rogues (knaves) and suckers (fools). the knave exploits someone "asking for it." when these two interact, comic satire results...when they meet they expose each other


a deliberate mispronunciation of a name or term with the intent of poking fun


the humorous use of a word or phrase so as to emphasize or suggest its different meanings or applications, or the use of words that are alike or nearly alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words


obvious and intentional exaggeration


restraint or lack of emphasis in expression, as for rhetorical effect


the use of incompatible elements to create a humorous contrast

tone: horatian

a light-hearted tone

tone: juvenalian

a harsh, bitter tone

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