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APUSH Unit 1 Exam
Terms for Unit 1 APUSH Exam
Terms in this set (51)
Prince Henry the Navigator
Prince Henry the Navigator established a school of navigation and brought in instrument makers, shipbuilders, geographers, and sailors. They developed a new ship called a Caravel, and he discovered the world was round. His school lead to the voyages of exploration.
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journies until the time of his death in 1503.
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia) (1450-1500)
Spanish conquerors of great Indian civilizations
went to new world to colonize with the purpose of converting the natives
A Father of the Church whose writings are considered very influential in the development of Western Christianity and philosophy. Augustine developed the concept of the Catholic Church as a spiritual City of God, distinct from the material Earthly City. His thoughts profoundly influenced the medieval worldview.
established Santa Fe mission
Indians of New Mexico who Oñate took the lands of for Spain. Over time relations between them and Spain improved and substantial numbers were converted to Christianity under the influence of Spanish missionaries and they had a trading relationship with the Spanish. Important because these Indians were able to exist with the Spanish for a long time before the Spanish continued exploitation, leading to the Pueblo revolts beginning in 1608.
An exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Groups of private investors who paid an annual fee to France and England in exchange for a monopoly over trade to the West Indies colonies.
Policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to gain wealth and power.
English promoter of exploration. In 1584 he wrote A Discourse of Western Planting in which he pleaded for colonies to accomplish diverse objects: to extend the reformed religion, to expand trade, to supply England's needs from her own dominions, and various other reasons for exploration.
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches. Led by Martin Luther.
result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom.
Determined to worship as they pleased in their own congregations.
Responsible for the Massachusets Bay Company.
When the English went to live in Ireland, they had realized the only way to have a successful and peaceful colony was by remaining separate from the natives. They had created these plantation models which were in essence, transplantations of English culture and society into a foreign land. They societies existed in "pale of settlement" which meant they were physically separated from native land. They did not try and rule or subjugate the natives but rather populated their societies with Englishman. They used the same technique when setting up colonies but it was ineffective at keeping the two peoples apart
1588 fleet that attempted an invasion of England
1607. Virginia company sponsored English colonization in Jamestown, VA. English men didn't want to work/build colony. IT was a swampy area-hard to grow crops. There was disease and disputes with indians. Once women arrived, tobacco was planted, and the colonists established trade with the indians the colony survived. This was the first permeant english settlement.
A joint-stock company chartered in 1606 and was responsible for founding the first permanent English settlement in America; Jamestown, Virginia in 1607
1580-1631 English military captain who founded Jamestown and explored the Chesapeake Bay and the New England coast
The Starving Time
1609 - 1610; trade with the Indians stopped; no food and almost everyone died, some resorted to grave robbing and canablism.
De La Warr
Jamestown's first governor, imposed harsh military regime on Jamestown, took action against Indians.
Cash crop that made a profit and saved Jamestown
Colonial system of awarding a tract of land, usually fifty acres, to a person who paid for the passage of an indentured servant to the colonies. Some wealthy people in Virginia and other southern colonies accumulated huge tracts of land through this system.
Tribe at Jamestown
a family that founded Maryland and wanted to build a colony made of money and that provided refuge for Catholics
1632; founded in Northern half of the Chesapeak Bay Region; becomes safe place for English Catholics
In Maryland, Lord Baltimore established that he and his heirs were to hold their province as "true and absolute lords and proprietaries" and acknowledge the ultimate power of the crown by paying a fee to the king.
Along western borders of English settlement, in particular, Europeans and Indians lived together in regions in which neither side was able to establish clear dominance. The two populations-despite conflicts-carved out ways of living together, with each side making concessions of the other. Basis for fur trade.
British colonial governor of Virginia from 1642-52. He showed preference for those not living in the Backcountry which resulted in Bacon's rebellion in 1676. Disliked as Virginia governor because of his friendly policies toward the Indians. Regained power after Bacon's Rebellion was suppressed.
(est. 1663) English colony that modeled West Indian social and economic growth patterns, with large plantations growing rice and indigo with slave labor. Unlike in Virginia, Africans were a majority of the seventeenth century population
(Middle Colony) It was founded by the Dutch for trade and furs and became an English Colony in 1664.
1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. This colony allowed religious freedom.
1733 - Georgia was formed as a buffer between the Carolinas and Spanish-held Florida. It was a military-style colony, but also served as a haven for the poor, criminals, and persecuted Protestants.
western edge of the English influence in N.A., Europeans and Indian tribes couldn't establish a dominance over each other, so they learned to coexist
reestablishment of monarchy in the person of Charles II, the son of Charles I, after Cromwell's death. It temporarily ended England's troubles. King Charles II was restored to the throne.
A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of Massachusetts's religious and political system. Her ideas became known as the heresy of Antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law. She was latter expelled, with her family and followers, and went and settled at Pocasset ( now Portsmouth, R.I.)
A Governor of Virginia, appointed by King Charles I, of whom he was a favorite. He was governor from 1641-1652 and 1660-1677. Berkeley enacted friendly policies towards the Indians that led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.
A church grown out of the Puritan church, was established in all New England colonies but Rhode Island. It was based on the belief that individual churches should govern themselves.
A document given to the founders of a colony by the monarch that allows for special privileges and establishes a general relationship of one of three types: (1) Royal- direct rule of colony by monarch, (2) Joint Stock/Corporate- Colony is run by a joint-stock company, (3) Proprietary- colony is under rule of someone chosen by the monarch. Royal Charters guaranteed that colonists would have "rights as all Englishmen"
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Pilgrims. Gave themselves this name because they highly condemned the Church of England.
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
Fundamental articles of New England
established a Bible-based government even stricter than Massachusetts Bay.
Church of England
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife
Salem Witch Trial
1629 outbreak of witchcraft accusations in a puritan village marked by an atmosphere of fear, hysteria and stress
-originally the colony of New Amsterdam owned by the Dutch, but taken by Charles II in order for the New England and Chesapeake colonies to be connected.
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