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circulatory system

consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood

blood plasma

extracellular matrix of blood is ________


Serum is essentially identical to plasma except for the absence of the clotting protein _______


What is the most abundant plasma solute by weight


When the blood clots and the solids are removed, the remaining fluid is the blood ______


smallest and most abundant plasma protein; major contributor to blood viscosity and osmolarity
60% of plasma protein

albumin, globulin, fibrinogen

Three major categories of plasma proteins are


play roles in solute transport, clotting and immunity
divided into 3 subclasses from smallest to largest molecular weight =alpha, beta and gamma
36% of plasma protein


______ is a sticky protein that forms the framework of a clot


plasma protein that is the precursor of fibrin
4% of plasma protein


_____ contributes all of the major proteins except the gamma globulins

plasma cells

Gamma globulins come from _________, which are connective tissue cells that are descended from white blood cells called B lymphocytes


What electrolyte is more important that any other solute for the osmolarity of the blood


Resistance of fluid to flow, resulting from the cohesion of its particles; thickness or stickiness of a fluid

whole blood

______is 4.5-5.5 times as viscous as water because of RBCs


_____ is 2.0 times as viscous as water because of its proteins (mainly albumin)


Abnormally high/low _____ leads to heart strain or heart failure


High/low ______ leads to hypertension, hypotension,edema


an effect of severe dietary protein deficiency and hypoproteinemia


The production of blood is called

hemopoietic tissues

the tissues the produce blood cells are called

myeloid hemopoiesis

blood formation in the bone marrow is called

lymphoid hemopoesis

blood formation in the lymphatic organs is called

pluripotent stem cell

All formed elements trace their origins to a common type of bone marrow stem cell , the

sodium ions, erythocytes, proteins

Osmolarity of the blood is mainly a product of ________,_______,______

colloid osmotic pressure(COP)

Contribution of protein to blood osmotic pressure is called


production of RBCs is called


production of WBC is called


production of platelets is called


_____are the only cells in the body that carry on anaerobic fermentation indefinitely

glycopproteins, glycolipids

the plasma membrane of a mature RBC has _______ and ____ on the outer surface that determine a person's blood type

colony forming unit(CFU)

Pluripotent stem cells differentiate into _____ which generate the respective blood cell lines

Where blood comes from

Absorption of tissue fluid and modification by liver


Biconcave discs with no organelles, DNA or nucleus
Incapable of production of protein synthesis and mitosis
function is to transport most o2 and co2


-no nucleus, but many organelles
-cell fragments of cytoplasm from a megakaryote
-act in multiple ways to reduce or hault bleeding


smallest of formed elements , but 2nd most abundant after RBCs


posses a nucleus and organelles
live in connective tissues, but "work" in bloodstream
5 different types, but al play roles in defense


become tissue macrophages
clean up dead neutrophils
largest wbc


____is a connective tissue with plasma and formed elements


_____regulates the passage of materials into and out of the blood

nitrogenous wastes

the toxic end products of catabolism


Erythroblasts mutiply and synthesize hemoglobin, their nuclei degenerate and they are then called ______. Later they become erythocytes


accounts for 33% of the cytoplasm of RBCs; this is the red pigment that gives an RBC its color and name. It is known especially for its oxygen-transport function , but also aids in the transport of co2 and the buffering of pH

transportation, protection and regulation

3 main functions of blood are

fluid distribution, pH balance, thermoregulation

Blood plays a role in regulating what 3 things ?


Hemoglobin consists of four protein chains called _____

alpha, beta

Hemoglobins consist of 2 _____ chains which are 141 amino acids long and 2 ___ chains which are 146 amino acids


nonprotein moiety that binds o2 to a ferrous ion (fe2+)
-each can carry one molecule of o2


how many molecules of oxygen can one hemoglobin carry


hematocrit value for ____ is 45%-52% RBCs


4.6-6.2 million/uL= RBC count in _____


percentage of whole blood volume composted of RBCs


hematocrit value for ___ is about 38%-42% RBCs


erythropoietin(EPO) stimulates the ECFU to transform into an _____,which multiply and synthesize hemoglobin


Bone marrow uses iron to make _____

Erythrocyte production(erythropoiesis)

Pluripotent stem cell --> erythrocyte forming unit --> erythroblast---> reticulocyte --->erythocyte

Describes what process


named for a temporary network (reticulum) composed of ribosome clusters and polyribosomes


key nutritional requirement for erythropoiesis


Only form of iron that can be absorbed by small intestine


A protein called ____ produced by the stomach binds Fe2+ and transports it to the small intestine


fe2+ in small intestine binds to a plasma protein called ______and travels to the bone marrow, liver and other tissues

apoferritin, ferritin

Liver binds surplus iron to a protein called ____ , forming an iron storage complex called ___


low RBC count causes oxygen deficiency in the blood

negative feedback

RBC homeostasis is maintained by a __________loop


Hypoxemia stimulates secretion of


rupture of RBCs , releases hemoglobin and leaves empty plasma membranes

liver and spleen

Expired erythrocytes break up in what two organs?


rupturing of RBCs , releases hemoglobin and leaves empty plasma membrane


RBC excess


a deficiency of RBCs or hemoglobin is called

primary polycythemia

due to cancer of the erythropoietic line of the red bone marrow

secondary polycythemia

causes are Dehydration, living at a high altitude, emphysema, strenous aerobic activity, smoking

dangers of polycythemia

high blood volume, high blood presssure and viscosity, poor circulation, clogged capillaries, strain on heart , embolism , stroke heart failure are all what?

3 causes of anemia

1) inadequate erythropoiesis or hemopoiesis
2) hemorrhagic anemia=bleeding
3) hemolytic anemia= rbc destruction

hemorrhagic anemia

low rbc count due to bleeding

hemolytic anemia

low rbc count from rbc destruction

iron deficiency anemia

most common form of nutritional anemia
characterized by small pale erythrocytes
usually cause by blood loss without sufficient compensatory iron ingestion

pernicious anemia

deficiency of intrinsic factor leading to inadequate vitamin B12 absorpotion
*common usually only in strict vegetarians

hypoplastic anemia

caused by a decine in erythropoiesis

aplastic anemia

complete cessation of erythropoiesis


oxygen deprivation in tissues

dangers of anemia

hypoxia, and tissue necrosis
low osmolarity
low viscosity

RBC disorders

Anemia, polycythemia and sickle cell disease are all ____ _____


the occurance of multiple phenotypic effects from a change in a single gene


are cell fragments having pseudopods that make amoeboid motion possible

sickle cell disease

disorder of RBC count, single gene mutation replaces glutamic acid with valine as the 6 amino acid of the beta chain


complex molecules that are unique to each individual(except identical twins), occur on surface of all cells and trigger immune response. They enable cells to distinguish between its own cells from foreign matter


immune gamma globulins secreted by plasma cells


A method antibody action, one antibody binds to two or more antigen molecules and sticks them together

antigens and antibodies

Blood types are based on interactions between large molecules called _____ and ____


"clump together"

antigen-antibody complexes

Antibodies agglutinate foreign antigens into ________ that immobilizes the antigens until certain immune cells can break them down


blood types are based on antigens called ____ on the surfaces of the RBCs


blood types are based on antibodies called _____ in the blood plasma

type AB

has no plasma antibody

type AB

universal recipient


If any Rh agglutinogens are present on RBCs the person is Rh ______
*usually he or she has antigen D


if a person lacks Rh agglutinogens on the RBCs the person is Rh______
*lack antigen D

Rhesus monkey

The Rh blood group is named for the ______ ____

ant D/anti Rh

antibodes are produced only upon exposure to mismatched RBCs. Problems arise if there is a second exposure

Type O

______ does not agglutinate in any plasma type


prevention of HDN by adminstering an anti RH gamma globulin injection called _____, to a mother shortly after the first Rh+ babies are delivered.


least abundant formed element


play a role in immune response
possess a nucleus and organelles
live in connective tissues , work in blood stream
short lived


secrete antibodies (B cells) destroy foreign or cancer (T cells) secrete chemicals to enhance the function of other immune cells (help T)


smallest wbc


WBC count less than 5,000
*causes: poor resistance to infection and cancer


which ultimately differentiate into the three types of granulocytes


WBC greater than10,000 wbcs
*usually a normal response to infection and other disorders


cancer of hemopoietic tissues which produces an abonormally high amount of leukocytes and their precursors

lymphoblastic leukemia

the most common type of childhood cancer

opportunistic infection

Establishment of pathogenic organisms that usually cannot get a foodhold in people with healthy immune systems


promote clotting; also called clotting factors


production of platelets

vascular spasm, platelet plug, formation, and blood clotting

three hemostatic mechanisms are

vascular spasm

first mechanism to try to reduce blood loss

thromboxane A2

am eicosanoid that promtes platelet aggregation, degranulation and vasoconstriction


The erythrocyte antigens that determine transfusion compatibility are called


low platelet count

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