How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

119 terms

ch.18

STUDY
PLAY
circulatory system
consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood
blood plasma
extracellular matrix of blood is ________
fibrinogen
Serum is essentially identical to plasma except for the absence of the clotting protein _______
protein
What is the most abundant plasma solute by weight
serum
When the blood clots and the solids are removed, the remaining fluid is the blood ______
albumin
smallest and most abundant plasma protein; major contributor to blood viscosity and osmolarity
60% of plasma protein
albumin, globulin, fibrinogen
Three major categories of plasma proteins are
globulin
play roles in solute transport, clotting and immunity
divided into 3 subclasses from smallest to largest molecular weight =alpha, beta and gamma
36% of plasma protein
fibrin
______ is a sticky protein that forms the framework of a clot
fibrinogen
plasma protein that is the precursor of fibrin
4% of plasma protein
liver
_____ contributes all of the major proteins except the gamma globulins
plasma cells
Gamma globulins come from _________, which are connective tissue cells that are descended from white blood cells called B lymphocytes
sodium
What electrolyte is more important that any other solute for the osmolarity of the blood
viscosity
Resistance of fluid to flow, resulting from the cohesion of its particles; thickness or stickiness of a fluid
whole blood
______is 4.5-5.5 times as viscous as water because of RBCs
Plasma
_____ is 2.0 times as viscous as water because of its proteins (mainly albumin)
viscosity
Abnormally high/low _____ leads to heart strain or heart failure
osmolarity
High/low ______ leads to hypertension, hypotension,edema
kwashiorkor
an effect of severe dietary protein deficiency and hypoproteinemia
hemopoiesis
The production of blood is called
hemopoietic tissues
the tissues the produce blood cells are called
myeloid hemopoiesis
blood formation in the bone marrow is called
lymphoid hemopoesis
blood formation in the lymphatic organs is called
pluripotent stem cell
All formed elements trace their origins to a common type of bone marrow stem cell , the
sodium ions, erythocytes, proteins
Osmolarity of the blood is mainly a product of ________,_______,______
colloid osmotic pressure(COP)
Contribution of protein to blood osmotic pressure is called
erythropoiesis
production of RBCs is called
leukopoiesis
production of WBC is called
thrombopoiesis
production of platelets is called
erythrocytes
_____are the only cells in the body that carry on anaerobic fermentation indefinitely
glycopproteins, glycolipids
the plasma membrane of a mature RBC has _______ and ____ on the outer surface that determine a person's blood type
colony forming unit(CFU)
Pluripotent stem cells differentiate into _____ which generate the respective blood cell lines
Where blood comes from
Absorption of tissue fluid and modification by liver
erythrocytes
Biconcave discs with no organelles, DNA or nucleus
Incapable of production of protein synthesis and mitosis
function is to transport most o2 and co2
platelets
-no nucleus, but many organelles
-cell fragments of cytoplasm from a megakaryote
-act in multiple ways to reduce or hault bleeding
platelets
smallest of formed elements , but 2nd most abundant after RBCs
leukocytes
posses a nucleus and organelles
live in connective tissues, but "work" in bloodstream
5 different types, but al play roles in defense
monocytes
become tissue macrophages
clean up dead neutrophils
largest wbc
blood
____is a connective tissue with plasma and formed elements
osmolarity
_____regulates the passage of materials into and out of the blood
nitrogenous wastes
the toxic end products of catabolism
reticuloyctes
Erythroblasts mutiply and synthesize hemoglobin, their nuclei degenerate and they are then called ______. Later they become erythocytes
hemoglobin
accounts for 33% of the cytoplasm of RBCs; this is the red pigment that gives an RBC its color and name. It is known especially for its oxygen-transport function , but also aids in the transport of co2 and the buffering of pH
transportation, protection and regulation
3 main functions of blood are
fluid distribution, pH balance, thermoregulation
Blood plays a role in regulating what 3 things ?
globulins
Hemoglobin consists of four protein chains called _____
alpha, beta
Hemoglobins consist of 2 _____ chains which are 141 amino acids long and 2 ___ chains which are 146 amino acids
heme
nonprotein moiety that binds o2 to a ferrous ion (fe2+)
-each can carry one molecule of o2
4
how many molecules of oxygen can one hemoglobin carry
males
hematocrit value for ____ is 45%-52% RBCs
males
4.6-6.2 million/uL= RBC count in _____
hematocrit
percentage of whole blood volume composted of RBCs
women
hematocrit value for ___ is about 38%-42% RBCs
eythroblast(normoblast)
erythropoietin(EPO) stimulates the ECFU to transform into an _____,which multiply and synthesize hemoglobin
hemoglobin
Bone marrow uses iron to make _____
Erythrocyte production(erythropoiesis)
Pluripotent stem cell --> erythrocyte forming unit --> erythroblast---> reticulocyte --->erythocyte

Describes what process
reticulocyte
named for a temporary network (reticulum) composed of ribosome clusters and polyribosomes
iron
key nutritional requirement for erythropoiesis
ferrous
Only form of iron that can be absorbed by small intestine
gastroferritin
A protein called ____ produced by the stomach binds Fe2+ and transports it to the small intestine
transferrin
fe2+ in small intestine binds to a plasma protein called ______and travels to the bone marrow, liver and other tissues
apoferritin, ferritin
Liver binds surplus iron to a protein called ____ , forming an iron storage complex called ___
hypoxemia
low RBC count causes oxygen deficiency in the blood
negative feedback
RBC homeostasis is maintained by a __________loop
erythropoietin
Hypoxemia stimulates secretion of
hemolysis
rupture of RBCs , releases hemoglobin and leaves empty plasma membranes
liver and spleen
Expired erythrocytes break up in what two organs?
hemolysis
rupturing of RBCs , releases hemoglobin and leaves empty plasma membrane
polycythemia
RBC excess
anemia
a deficiency of RBCs or hemoglobin is called
primary polycythemia
due to cancer of the erythropoietic line of the red bone marrow
secondary polycythemia
causes are Dehydration, living at a high altitude, emphysema, strenous aerobic activity, smoking
dangers of polycythemia
high blood volume, high blood presssure and viscosity, poor circulation, clogged capillaries, strain on heart , embolism , stroke heart failure are all what?
3 causes of anemia
1) inadequate erythropoiesis or hemopoiesis
2) hemorrhagic anemia=bleeding
3) hemolytic anemia= rbc destruction
hemorrhagic anemia
low rbc count due to bleeding
hemolytic anemia
low rbc count from rbc destruction
iron deficiency anemia
most common form of nutritional anemia
characterized by small pale erythrocytes
usually cause by blood loss without sufficient compensatory iron ingestion
pernicious anemia
deficiency of intrinsic factor leading to inadequate vitamin B12 absorpotion
*common usually only in strict vegetarians
hypoplastic anemia
caused by a decine in erythropoiesis
aplastic anemia
complete cessation of erythropoiesis
hypoxia
oxygen deprivation in tissues
dangers of anemia
hypoxia, and tissue necrosis
low osmolarity
low viscosity
RBC disorders
Anemia, polycythemia and sickle cell disease are all ____ _____
pleiotropy
the occurance of multiple phenotypic effects from a change in a single gene
platelets
are cell fragments having pseudopods that make amoeboid motion possible
sickle cell disease
disorder of RBC count, single gene mutation replaces glutamic acid with valine as the 6 amino acid of the beta chain
antigens
complex molecules that are unique to each individual(except identical twins), occur on surface of all cells and trigger immune response. They enable cells to distinguish between its own cells from foreign matter
antibodies
immune gamma globulins secreted by plasma cells
agglutination
A method antibody action, one antibody binds to two or more antigen molecules and sticks them together
antigens and antibodies
Blood types are based on interactions between large molecules called _____ and ____
agglutinate
"clump together"
antigen-antibody complexes
Antibodies agglutinate foreign antigens into ________ that immobilizes the antigens until certain immune cells can break them down
agglutinogens
blood types are based on antigens called ____ on the surfaces of the RBCs
agglutinins
blood types are based on antibodies called _____ in the blood plasma
type AB
has no plasma antibody
type AB
universal recipient
positive
If any Rh agglutinogens are present on RBCs the person is Rh ______
*usually he or she has antigen D
negative
if a person lacks Rh agglutinogens on the RBCs the person is Rh______
*lack antigen D
Rhesus monkey
The Rh blood group is named for the ______ ____
ant D/anti Rh
antibodes are produced only upon exposure to mismatched RBCs. Problems arise if there is a second exposure
Type O
______ does not agglutinate in any plasma type
Rhogam
prevention of HDN by adminstering an anti RH gamma globulin injection called _____, to a mother shortly after the first Rh+ babies are delivered.
leukocytes
least abundant formed element
leukocytes
play a role in immune response
possess a nucleus and organelles
live in connective tissues , work in blood stream
short lived
lymphocytes
secrete antibodies (B cells) destroy foreign or cancer (T cells) secrete chemicals to enhance the function of other immune cells (help T)
lymphocytes
smallest wbc
leukopenia
WBC count less than 5,000
*causes: poor resistance to infection and cancer
myeloblasts
which ultimately differentiate into the three types of granulocytes
leukocytosis
WBC greater than10,000 wbcs
*usually a normal response to infection and other disorders
leukemia
cancer of hemopoietic tissues which produces an abonormally high amount of leukocytes and their precursors
lymphoblastic leukemia
the most common type of childhood cancer
opportunistic infection
Establishment of pathogenic organisms that usually cannot get a foodhold in people with healthy immune systems
procagulants
promote clotting; also called clotting factors
thrombopoiesis
production of platelets
vascular spasm, platelet plug, formation, and blood clotting
three hemostatic mechanisms are
vascular spasm
first mechanism to try to reduce blood loss
thromboxane A2
am eicosanoid that promtes platelet aggregation, degranulation and vasoconstriction
agglutinogens
The erythrocyte antigens that determine transfusion compatibility are called
thrombocytopenia
low platelet count